shank (n.)

"leg of a human or animal," especially "the part of the leg from the knewe to the ankle," Old English sceanca "leg, shank, shinbone," specifically, the part of the leg from the knee to the ankle, from Proto-Germanic *skunkia- (source also of Middle Low German schenke, German schenkel "shank, leg"), perhaps literally "that which bends," from PIE root *skeng- "crooked" (source also of Old Norse skakkr "wry, distorted," Greek skazein "to limp").

From late 15c. as "straight part of a nail or pin." As "part of an instrument, tool, etc., which connects the acting part with the handle," from 1680s. The slang sense of "latter part or end of anything" is by 1828. Jocular shank's mare "one's own legs as a means of transportation" is attested from 1774 (as shanks-naig).

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permutation (n.)

late 14c., permutacioun, "interchange, concurrent change; exchange of one thing, position, condition, etc., for another," from Old French permutacion "change, shift" (14c.), from Latin permutationem (nominative permutatio) "a change, alteration, revolution," noun of action from past participle stem of permutare "change thoroughly, exchange," from per "thoroughly" (see per) + mutare "to change" (from PIE root *mei- (1) "to change, go, move"). The sense of "a linear arrangement of objects resulting from a change of their order" is by 1710, originally in mathematics.

Permutation differs from combination in this, that in the latter there is no reference to the order in which the quantities are combined, whereas in the former this order is considered, and consequently the number of permutations always exceeds the number of combinations. [Century Dictionary]
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wick (n.2)

"dairy farm," now surviving, if at all, as a localism in East Anglia or Essex, it was once the common Old English wic "dwelling place, lodging, house, mansion, abode," then coming to mean "village, hamlet, town," and later "dairy farm" (as in Gatwick "Goat-farm"). Common in this latter sense 13c.-14c. The word is from a general Germanic borrowing from Latin vicus "group of dwellings, village; a block of houses, a street, a group of streets forming an administrative unit" (from PIE root *weik- (1) "clan"). Compare Old High German wih "village," German Weichbild "municipal area," Dutch wijk "quarter, district," Old Frisian wik, Old Saxon wic "village."

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scorpion (n.)

type of arachnid inhabiting warm regions, notable for its large "nippers" and the painful sting in its tail, c. 1200,scorpioun, perhaps late Old English, from Old French scorpion (12c.), from Latin scorpionem (nominative scorpio), extended form of scorpius, from Greek skorpios "a scorpion" (from PIE root *sker- (1) "to cut"). The Spanish alacran "scorpion" is from Arabic al-'aqrab. Symbolic in Middle English of a treacherous person. As the zodiac sign by late 14c. Related: Scorpioid.

Centipeds and tarantulas are often confounded in the popular mind with scorpions, as are also various small lizards, in the latter case probably from the habit some of them have of carrying their tails up. Thus, in the United States, some harmless lizards or skinks, as of the genera Sceloporus and Eumeces, are commonly called scorpions. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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concubinage (n.)

late 14c., "state of being a concubine; act or practice of cohabiting in intimacy without legal marriage," from Old French concubinage, from concubin, from Latin concubina (see concubine). In ancient Roman law, "a permanent cohabitation between persons to whose marriage there were no legal obstacles."

It was distinguished from marriage proper (matrimonium) by the absence of "marital affection"—that is, the intention of founding a family. As no forms were prescribed in the later times either for legal marriage or concubinage, the question whether the parties intended to enter into the former or into the latter relation was often one of fact to be determined from the surrounding circumstances, and especially with reference to a greater or less difference of rank between them. [Century Dictionary]
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rink (n.)

late 14c., "measured ground for a combat, joust, race., etc.," in a Scottish source, and according to OED "Until the latter part of the 19thy cent. only in Sc. use;" probably from Old French renc, reng "row, line," from Frankish or another Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "something curved, circle" (from PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend"). But probably much confused in meaning with ring (n.1), also used for "area marked out for a sporting contest."

By 1787 (Burns) as "a sheet of ice measured off for curling;" extended to smooth wooden floors for roller-skating by 1875, to ice surfaces measured for ice hockey by 1896. By 1895 as "building containing a skating rink."

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cider (n.)

late 13c. (in a biblical context), "strong liquor;" mid-14c., "liquor made from the juice of fruits," from Old French cidre, cire "pear or apple cider" (12c., Modern French cidre), variant of cisdre, from Late Latin sicera, Vulgate rendition of Hebrew shekhar, a word used for any strong drink (translated in Old English as beor, taken untranslated in Septuagint Greek as sikera), related to Arabic sakar "strong drink," sakira "was drunk."

Meaning gradually narrowed in English to mean exclusively "fermented drink made from apples," though this sense also was in Old French. Later applied to any expressed juice of apples, either before or after fermentation (19c.). The former is distinguished as sweet cider, the latter as hard cider.

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humane (adj.)
mid-15c., a parallel variant of human (adj.), with a form and stress that perhaps suggest a stronger association with Latin humanus than with Old French humain. Human and humane were used interchangeably in the senses "pertaining to a human being" and "having qualities befitting human beings" (c. 1500). The latter at first meant "courteous, friendly, civil, obliging," then "marked by tenderness, compassion, and a disposition to kindly treat others" (c. 1600). By early 18c. the words had differentiated in spelling and accent and humane took the "kind" sense.

Compare germane, urbane. Meaning "inflicting less pain than something else" is from 1904. Inhuman is its natural opposite. The Royal Humane Society (founded 1774) was originally to rescue drowning persons; such societies had turned to animal care by late 19c.
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cabbage (n.)
type of cultivated culinary vegetable that grows a rounded head of thick leaves, mid-15c., caboge, from Old North French caboche "head" (in dialect, "cabbage"), from Old French caboce "head," a diminutive from Latin caput "head" (from PIE root *kaput- "head"). Earlier in Middle English as caboche (late 14c.). The plant was introduced to Canada 1541 by Jacques Cartier on his third voyage. First record of it in modern U.S. is 1660s.

The decline of "ch" to "j" in the unaccented final syllable parallels the common pronunciation of spinach, sandwich, Greenwich, etc. The comparison of a head of cabbage to the head of a person (usually disparaging to the latter) is at least as old as Old French cabus "(head of) cabbage; nitwit, blockhead," from Italian capocchia, diminutive of capo. The cabbage-butterfly (1816) is so called because its caterpillars feed on cabbages and other cruciferous plants.
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hoochy koochy (n.)

also hoochie-coochie, hootchy kootchy, "erotic suggestive women's dance" (involving a lot of hip-grinding), 1898, of obscure origin, usually associated, without evidence, with the Chicago world's fair of 1893 and belly-dancer Little Egypt (who might not even have been there), but the word itself is attested from 1890, as the stage name of minstrel singer "Hoochy-Coochy Rice," and the chorus of the popular minstrel song "The Ham-Fat Man" (by 1856; see ham (n.2)) contains the nonsense phrase "Hoochee, kouchee, kouchee."

To-day, however, in place of the danse du ventre or the coochie-coochie we have the loop-the-loop or the razzle-dazzle, which latter, while not exactly edifying at least do not serve to deprave public taste. ["The Redemption of 'Old Coney,'" in Broadway Magazine, April 1904]
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