Etymology
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steed (n.)
Old English steda "stallion, stud horse," from Proto-Germanic *stodjon (source also of Old Norse stoð), from the same Germanic root as Old English stod (see stud (n.2)). In Middle English, "a great horse" (as distinguished from a palfrey), "a spirited war horse." Obsolete from 16c. except in poetic, rhetorical, or jocular language.
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materiel (n.)

"the totality of things used in the carrying out of any complex art or technique" (as distinguished from personnel), 1814, from French matériel "material," noun use of adj. matériel (see material (adj.)). A later borrowing of the same word that became material (n.). By 1819 in the specific sense of "articles, supplies, machinery, etc. used in the military."

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pair (v.)

"to come together with another; be mated or married" (intransitive), also "to make a pair by matching" (transitive), c. 1600, from pair (n.). These senses now often are distinguished by pair off "separate from a company in pairs or couples" (1783) for the former and pair up (1863) for the latter. Related: Paired; pairing.

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flagship (n.)
also flag-ship, 1670s, a warship bearing the flag of an admiral, vice-admiral, or rear-admiral, from flag (n.) + ship (n.). Properly, at sea, a flag is the banner by which an admiral is distinguished from the other ships in his squadron, other banners being ensigns, pendants, standards, etc. Figurative use by 1933.
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heroine (n.)

1650s, "demigoddess," from Latin heroine, heroina (plural heroinae) "a female hero, a demigoddess" (such as Medea), from Greek hērōine, fem. of hērōs (see hero (n.1)). Meaning "heroic woman, woman distinguished by exalted courage or noble achievements" is from 1660s. Sense of "principal female character in a drama, poem, etc." is from 1715.

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commons (n.)

mid-14c., "the people collectively," especially "the common people as distinguished from the rulers and nobility and the clergy; the freemen of England as represented in Parliament" (late 14c.), from common (n.). Meaning "the lower house of Parliament, consisting of commoners chosen by the people as their representatives" is from early 15c. House of Commons is from 1620s. Meaning "provisions for a community or company" is from mid-14c.

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frequency (n.)
1550s, "state of being crowded" (now obsolete); 1640s, "fact of occurring often;" from Latin frequentia "an assembling in great numbers, a crowding; crowd, multitude, throng," from frequentem (see frequent). Sense in physics, "rate of recurrence," especially of a vibration, is from 1831. In radio electronics, frequency modulation (1922, abbreviated F.M.) as a system of broadcasting is distinguished from amplitude modulation (or A.M.).
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re-collect (v.)

"to collect or gather again," c. 1600; see re- "back, again" + collect (v.). Earlier simply "to collect" (1510s). It has its origin in Latin recollectus (see recollect), but now is marked by pronunciation and spelling to distinguish it from recollect in senses that are only partly distinguished. Related: Re-collected; re-collecting.

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pandemic (adj.)

of diseases, "incident to a whole people or region," 1660s, from Late Latin pandemus, from Greek pandemos "pertaining to all people; public, common," from pan- "all" (see pan-) + dēmos "people" (see demotic). Modeled on epidemic; OED reports that it is "Distinguished from epidemic, which may connote limitation to a smaller area." The noun, "a pandemic disease," is recorded by 1853, from the adjective. Related: Pandemia.

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umber (n.)

brown earthy pigment, 1560s, from French ombre (in terre d'ombre), or Italian ombra (in terra di ombra), both from Latin umbra "shade, shadow" (see umbrage) or else from Umbra, fem. of Umber "belonging to Umbria," region in central Italy from which the coloring matter first came (compare Sienna). Burnt umber, specially prepared and redder in color, is attested from c. 1650, distinguished from raw umber.

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