Etymology
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sterol (n.)
"white, crystalline substance discovered in gallstones," 1913, abstracted from cholesterol.
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leuko- 
before vowels leuk-, also sometimes in Latinized form leuco-/leuc-, word-forming element used from 19c. and meaning "white" (or, in medicine, "leukocyte"), from Greek leukos "clear, white," from PIE *leuko-, suffixed form of root *leuk- "light, brightness."
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Parian (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Paros," one of the Cyclades, famous for its white marble.

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bialy (n.)
bagel with onion flakes sprinkled on it, by 1936, ultimately short for Białystok, city in modern Poland. The city is named for the Biała river (literally White River), that flows past it, from Polish biały "white" + stok "slope."
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Argentina 
South American nation, from Latin argentinus "of silver," from PIE root *arg- "to shine; white," hence "silver" as the shining or white metal. It is a Latinized form of (Rio) de la Plata "Silver River," from Spanish plata "silver" (see plate (n.)).
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archaeopteryx (n.)

Jurassic fossil animal long considered the oldest known bird (in 21c. new candidates emerged), 1871, from German (1861), coined in Modern Latin by German paleontologist Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer, from archaeo- "ancient, primitive" + Greek pteryx "wing" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"). Discovered (first as a single feather) by Andreas Wagner in 1860 or '61 in Bavaria.

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down (n.1)

"first feathers of a baby bird; soft covering of fowls under the feathers, the under-plumage of birds," used for stuffing pillows and feather-beds, mid-14c., from Old Norse dunn, which is of uncertain origin. Extended in Modern English to the soft hair of the human face and fine soft pubescence upon plants and some fruit.

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Caucasian (n.)

"resident or native of the Caucasus," 1843; see Caucasian (adj.). Meaning "one of the 'white' race" is from 1830.

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bully pulpit (n.)
1904, coined by U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, in reference to the White House.
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ironstone (n.)
1520s, from iron (n.) + stone (n.). As a type of hard, white pottery, 1825.
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