theocracy (n.)
Origin and meaning of theocracy

1737; earlier as un-Latinized theocraty (1620s), "form of government in which God is recognized as supreme ruler and his laws form the statute book," originally of the sacerdotal government of Israel before the rise of kings, from later Greek theokratia (Josephus), literally "the rule of God," from theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + kratos "a rule, regime, strength" (see -cracy). Meaning "priestly or religious body wielding political and civil power" is recorded from 1825. Related: Theocratic (1741).

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moderator (n.)

late 14c., moderatour, "that which regulates the movement of the celestial spheres," from Latin moderator "manager, ruler, director," literally "he who moderates," from moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures."

Meaning "one who acts as an arbitrator, person who presides at a meeting or disputation" is from 1560s. Fem. form moderatrix attested from 1530s.

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ambassador (n.)

late 14c., also embassador, "diplomatic emissary of a ruler in the court of another," from Old French embassator, ambassateor, which comes via Provençal or Old Spanish from Latin ambactus "a servant, vassal," from Celtic amb(i)actos "a messenger, servant" (from PIE root *ambhi- "around" + *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

Compare embassy. Forms in am- and em- were used indiscriminately in English 17c.-18c. Until 1893 the United States sent and received none, having only ministers (often called ambassadors), who represented the state, not the sovereign.

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masc. proper name, Biblical name of David's son and successor as king of Judah and Israel and wisest of all men, from Greek Solomon, from Hebrew Sh'lomoh, from shelomo "peaceful," from shalom "peace." The Arabic form is Suleiman.

The common form formerly was Salomon (Vulgate, Tyndale, Douai); Solomon was used in Geneva Bible and KJV. Used allusively for "a wise ruler" since 1550s. The Solomon Islands were so named 1568 by Spanish explorers in hopeful expectation that they had found the source of the gold brought to King Solomon in I Kings ix.29.

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overlord (n.)

late 12c., "a feudal superior, ruler possessing the fealty of other rulers," from over- + lord (n.). In English history, especially a king of one of the Anglo-Saxon realms who held pre-eminence or authority over some of the other kings and chiefs. The word was chosen in 1943 as the Allied code-word for the invasion of western Europe that resulted in D-Day.

 In the perspective of 'Overlord,' that one huge hazardous offensive operation on which, it seemed, the fate of the world depended, smaller adventures receded to infinitesimal importance. [Evelyn Waugh, "Unconditional Surrender"]
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principal (n.)

c. 1300, "chief man, leading representative," also "the most part, the main part;" also, in law, "one who takes a leading part or is primarily concerned in an action or proceeding;" from principal (adj.) or from or influenced by noun uses in Old French and Latin.

From mid-14c. as "ruler, governor;" 1827 as "person in charge of a public school," though the meaning "head of a college or hall" was in English from mid-15c. From early 15c. as "a main sum of money," hence "money on which interest is paid."  

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dictator (n.)
Origin and meaning of dictator

late 14c., dictatour, "Roman chief magistrate with absolute authority," from Old French dictator and directly from Latin dictator, agent noun from dictare "say often, prescribe," frequentative of dicere "to say, speak" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly").

In Latin, a dictator was a judge in the Roman republic temporarily invested with absolute power; this historical sense was the original one in English. The transferred sense of "absolute ruler, person possessing unlimited powers of government" is from c. 1600; that of "one who has absolute power or authority" of any kind, in any sphere is from 1590s. 

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from Latin Italia, from Greek Italia; of unknown origin. Perhaps an alteration of Oscan Viteliu "Italy," but meaning originally only the southwestern point of the peninsula. Traditionally said to be from Vitali, name of a tribe that settled in Calabria, whose name is perhaps somehow connected with Latin vitulus "calf." Or perhaps the country name is directly from vitulus as "land of cattle," or it might be from an Illyrian word, or an ancient or legendary ruler Italus. The modern nation dates from events of 1859-60 and was completed by the addition of Venetia in 1866 and Rome in 1870.

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Proto-Indo-European root meaning "woman."

It forms all or part of: androgynous; banshee; gynarchy; gyneco-; gynecology; gynecomastia; gyno-; misogyny; polygyny; quean; queen.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit janis "a woman," gná "wife of a god, a goddess;" Avestan jainish "wife;" Armenian kin "woman;" Greek gynē "a woman, a wife;" Old Church Slavonic zena, Old Prussian genna "woman;" Gaelic bean "woman;" Old English cwen "queen, female ruler of a state, woman, wife;" Gothic qino "a woman, wife, qéns "queen."

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autocrat (n.)

"absolute sovereign; ruler or monarch who holds power of government as by right, not subject to restrictions," 1800, in reference to the Russian tsars, who assumed it as a title, then to Napoleon, from French autocrate, from Latinized form of Greek autokratēs "ruling by oneself, absolute, autocratic," from autos "self" (see auto-) + kratia "rule," from kratos "strength, power" (see -cracy). The Greek noun was autokrator, and an earlier form in English was autocrator (1759). The earliest forms in English were the fem. autocratress (1762), autocratrix (1762), autocratrice (1767, from French).

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