Old English hwa "who," sometimes "what; anyone, someone; each; whosoever," from Proto-Germanic *hwas (source also of Old Saxon hwe, Danish hvo, Swedish vem, Old Frisian hwa, Dutch wie, Old High German hwer, German wer, Gothic hvo (fem.) "who"), from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns.
also dash-board, 1846, "board or leather apron in front of a carriage to stop mud from being splashed ('dashed') into the vehicle by the horse's hoofs," from dash (v.) + board (n.1). Of motor vehicles, "panel under the windshield, on which control panels and gauges are mounted,” by 1904. Except for the situation relative to the front seat, it has nothing in common with the original.
"companionship, fellowship, association with others," c. 1600, from French sodalité or directly from Latin sodalitatem (nominative sodalitas) "companionship, a brotherhood, association, fellowship," from sodalis "companion," perhaps literally "one's own, relative," related to suescere "to accustom," from PIE *swedh-, extended form of root *s(w)e-, pronoun of the third person and reflexive (see idiom). Especially of religious guilds in the Catholic Church.
mid-15c., "relative, having relation or reference to something" (a sense now obsolete), from Medieval Latin respectivus "having regard for," from Latin respect- past-participle stem of respicere "look back at, regard, consider" (see respect (v.)). The meaning "relating or pertaining severally each to each, connected with each of those in question" is from 1640s.
a Latin phrase from Cicero. It means "to whom for a benefit," or "who profits by it?" not "to what good purpose? for what use or end?" as is sometimes said. From cui "to? for whom?," an old form preserved here in the dative form of the interrogative pronoun quis "who?" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns) + bono "good" (see bene-).
"one-time, former, having been formerly," 1580s, from earlier use as an adverb ("formerly") and a noun ("former holder" of some office or position), both 1530s, from Latin quondam (adv.) "formerly, at some time, at one time; once in a while," from quom, cum "when, as" (from PIE root *kwo-, stem of relative and interrogative pronouns) + demonstrative ending -dam. Related: Quondamship.
1839, "arrangement (of a building, etc.) to face east or any other specified direction," noun of action from orient (v.). Meaning "process of determining the points of the compass is by 1868, hence the extended sense of "action of determining one's mental bearings," with reference to new ideas, etc. (1870). Meaning "introduction to a situation" is from 1942. Sense of "the position or arrangement (of something) relative to the points of the compass" is from 1875. Related: Orientational.
Old English godsibb "sponsor, godparent," from God + sibb "relative" (see sibling). Extended in Middle English to "a familiar acquaintance, a friend, neighbor" (c. 1300), especially to woman friends invited to attend a birth, later to "anyone engaging in familiar or idle talk" (1560s). Sense extended 1811 to "trifling talk, groundless rumor." Similar formations in Old Norse guðsifja, Old Saxon guþziff.
Old English suþrige (722), literally "Southerly District" (relative to Middlesex), from suðer, from suð (see south) + -ge "district" (see yeoman). Bede and others use it as a folk-name, as if "People from Surrey." Meaning "two-seated, four-wheeled pleasure carriage" is from 1895, short for Surrey cart, an English pleasure cart (introduced in U.S. 1872), named for Surrey, England, where it first was made.
early 15c. (late 12c. as a surname), "a mother or father; a forebear, ancestor," from Old French parent "father, parent, relative, kin" (11c.) and directly from Latin parentem (nominative parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of present participle of parire "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth." Began to replace native elder after c. 1500.