mid-14c., "condition or relation of being other or different," also "any special mode of non-identity," from Old French difference"difference, distinction; argument, dispute" (12c.) and directly from Latin differentia "diversity, difference," from differentem (nominative differens), present participle of differre "to set apart," from assimilated form of dis- "apart, away from" (see dis-) + ferre "to bear, carry," from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry." Sense of "controversy, dispute, a quarrel" is from late 14c.
"application" (of one thing to another), mid-15c., originally in grammatical sense "the relation to a noun or pronoun of another noun or clause added to it by way of explanation," from Latin appositionem (nominative appositio) "a setting before," noun of action from past-participle stem of apponere "lay beside, set near," especially "serve, set before," also "put upon, apply," from ad "to, toward" (see ad-) + ponere "to place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). The general sense is from 1540s.
early 14c., ruffelen, "to disturb the smoothness or order of," a word of obscure origin. Similar forms are found in Scandinavian (such as Old Norse hrufla "to scratch") and Low German (ruffelen "to wrinkle, curl;" Middle Low German ruffen "to fornicate"), but the exact relation and origin of them is uncertain. Also compare Middle English ruffelen "be at odds with, quarrel, dispute."
The meaning "disarrange" (hair or feathers) is recorded from late 15c.; the sense of "annoy, vex, distract" is from 1650s. Related: Ruffled; ruffling.
"opposition to disestablishment of the Church of England," 1838, said by Weekley to be first recorded in Gladstone's "Church and State." The establishment is "the ecclesiastical system established by law" (1731), specifically "the Church of England" (1731). Hence establishmentarianism "the principle of a state church" (1846) and disestablishment "act of withdrawing (a church) from a privileged relation to the state" (1747; see disestablish), which are married in this word. Rarely used at all now except in examples of the longest words, among which it has been counted at least since 1901.
1560s, "preponderance, dominance, leadership," originally of predominance of one city state or another in Greek history; from Greek hēgemonia "leadership, a leading the way, a going first;" also "the authority or sovereignty of one city-state over a number of others," as Athens in Attica, Thebes in Boeotia; from hēgemon "leader, an authority, commander, sovereign," from hēgeisthai "to lead," perhaps originally "to track down," from PIE *sag-eyo-, from root *sag- "to seek out, track down, trace" (see seek). In reference to modern situations from 1850, at first of Prussia in relation to other German states.
1. "person who kills a parent or near relative" (1550s), also 2. "act of killing a parent or near relative" (1560s), both from French parricide (13c. in sense 1, 16c. in sense 2), from 1. Latin parricida, 2. Latin parricidium, probably from parus "relative" (a word of uncertain origin, but compare Greek paos, peos "relation," Sanskrit purushah "man") + 1. cida "killer," 2. cidium "killing," both from caedere "to kill, to cut down" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike"). Old English had fæderslaga. Related: Parricidal.
1660s, "reference, relation, relationship," from French rapport "bearing, yield, produce; harmony, agreement, intercourse," back-formation from rapporter "bring back; refer to," from re- "again" (see re-) + apporter "to bring," from Latin apportare "to bring," from ad "to" (see ad-) + portare "to carry" (from PIE root *per- (2) "to lead, pass over"). The Old French noun was report "pronouncement, judgment," from reporter "to tell, relate" (see report (v.)).
Especially "harmonious relation; accord or agreement; analogy." Psychological meaning "intense harmonious accord," as between therapist and patient, is first attested 1894, though the word had been used in a similar sense with reference to mesmerism from 1845 (in Poe). Also see report (n.).
Formerly often used as a French word, and in en rapport. Johnson  frowns on the word and credits its use in English to Sir William Temple, notorious naturalizer of French terms, who did use it but was not the first to do so. Fowler writes that it was "formerly common enough to be regarded and pronounced as English," but in his time  the word seemed to have reacquired its Frenchness and was thus dispensable.
"mass of fish eggs," mid-15c., roughe, probably from an unrecorded Old English *hrogn, from Proto-Germanic *khrugnaz (source also of Old Norse hrogn, Danish rogn, Swedish rom, Flemish rog, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch roge, Old High German rogo, German Rogen "roe"), from PIE *krek- "frog spawn, fish eggs" (source also of Lithuanian kurklė, Russian krjak "spawn of frogs"). The exact relation of the Germanic words to each other is unclear, and the Middle English word might be rather from Middle Dutch.