Etymology
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buffer (n.1)

"something that absorbs a blow, apparatus for deadening the concussion between a moving body and that against which it strikes," 1835, agent noun from obsolete verb buff "make a dull sound when struck" (mid-16c.), from Old French bufe "a blow, slap, punch" (see buffet (n.2)). The figurative sense of "anything that prevents impact or neutralizes the shock of impact of opposing forces" is from 1858.

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cotyledon (n.)

from 1540s in physiology, later in botany, used in various sense, from Latin cotyledon "pennywort, navelwort," from Greek kotyledon "cup-shaped cavity," used of various holes, also "sucker, suction cup," also a plant name, from kotylē "bowl, dish, small cup," also the name of a small liquid measure (nearly a half-pint), in transferred use, "socket, especially of the hip-joint;" a word of uncertain origin [Beekes finds it probably Pre-Greek]. Botanical sense is 1776, from Linnaeus (1751). Related: Cotyledonal.

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grail (n.)

c. 1300, gral, "the Holy Grail," from Old French graal, greal "Holy Grail; cup," earlier "large shallow dish, basin," from Medieval Latin gradalis, also gradale, grasale, "a flat dish or shallow vessel." The original form is uncertain; the word is perhaps ultimately from Latin crater "bowl," which is from Greek krater "bowl, especially for mixing wine with water" (see crater (n.)).

Holy Grail is Englished from Middle English seint gral (c. 1300), also sangreal, sank-real (c. 1400), which seems to show deformation as if from sang real "royal blood" (that is, the blood of Christ) The object had been inserted into the Celtic Arthurian legends by 12c., perhaps in place of some pagan otherworldly object. It was said to be the cup into which Joseph of Arimathea received the last drops of blood of Christ (according to the writers who picked up the thread of Chrétien de Troyes' "Perceval") or the dish from which Christ ate the Last Supper (Robert de Boron), and ultimately was identified as both ("þe dische wiþ þe blode," "Joseph of Aramathie," c. 1350?).

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cymbal (n.)

"one of a pair of plates of brass or bronze which, when struck together, produce a sharp, ringing sound," mid-15c., from Old English cimbal and from Old French cymbale (13c.), both from Latin cymbalum, from Greek kymbalon "a cymbal," from kymbē "bowl, drinking cup." This previously has been connected with Sanskrit kumbha-, Avestan xumba- "pot;" Middle Irish comm, cummal. Beekes writes that, for structural reasons, "the word cannot be inherited. It is rather a 'Wanderwort', which fits a vessel term very well."

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coomb (n.)

also combe, "deep hollow or valley, especially on flank of a hill," mainly surviving in place names, from Old English cumb, probably a British word, from Celtic base *kumbos (compare Welsh cwm in same sense). Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names says, "This is usually taken to be a Celtic loan ... but there was also OE cumb 'vessel, cup, bowl,'" which was "probably used in a transferred topographical sense reinforced in western districts by cwm."

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planter (n.)

late 14c., plaunter, "one who sows seeds," agent noun from plant (v.). The mechanical sense of "tool or machine for planting seeds" is by 1850. Figurative sense of "one who introduces, establishes, or sets up" is from 1630s. Meaning "one who owns a plantation, the proprietor of a cultivated estate in West Indies or southern colonies of North America" is from 1640s, hence planter's punch (1890). Meaning "a pot for growing plants" recorded by 1959.

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Toby 

familiar form of masc. proper name Tobias, in various colloquial usages, such as "jug" (1840), "drinking mug in the form of a stout old man;" as a type of collar (1882) it refers to that worn by the dog Toby in 19c. Punch and Judy shows. Also in Toby show (by 1942, American English) "comedy act based on the stock character of a boisterous, blundering yokel."

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bowler (n.1)

"hard, round, low-crowned hat," 1861, said to be from a J. Bowler, 19c. London hat manufacturer. A John Bowler of Surrey, hat manufacturer, was active from the 1820s to the 1840s, and a William Bowler, hat-manufacturer, of Southwark Bridge Road, Surrey, sought a patent in 1854 for "improvements in hats and other coverings for the head." But perhaps the word is simply from bowl (n.); compare Old English heafodbolla "brainpan, skull." The earliest printed examples are with a lower-case b-.

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puncheon (n.2)

"pointed tool for punching or piercing" used by masons, also "die for coining or seal-making," late 14c., from Old French ponchon, poinchon "pointed tool, piercing weapon," from Vulgar Latin *punctionem (nominative *punctio) "pointed tool," from past-participle stem of Latin pungere "to prick, pierce, sting" (from suffixed form of PIE root *peuk- "to prick"). Punch (n.1) is a shortened form of it. The meaning "stamp, die" is from c. 1500, a specialized use.

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chalice (n.)

"drinking-cup or bowl," early 14c., from Anglo-French chalice, from Old French chalice, collateral form of calice (Modern French calice), from Latin calicem (nominative calix) "cup," similar to, and perhaps cognate with, Greek kylix "cup, drinking cup, cup of a flower," but they might both be loan-words from the same non-IE language. Old English had it as cælic, an ecclesiastical borrowing of the Latin word, and earlier Middle English caliz is from Old North French.

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