Etymology
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sewer (n.1)

c. 1400, seuer, "conduit, trench, or ditch used for drainage" (of surface water or marshland), from Anglo-French sewere (early 14c.), Old North French sewiere "sluice from a pond" (13c.), literally "something that makes water flow." From late 13c. in surnames (Robertus Atte Suor). Also compare Anglo-Latin sewera, suera. These are from a shortened form of Gallo-Roman *exaquaria (source of Old French esseveur), from Latin ex "out" (see ex-) + aquaria, fem. of aquarius "pertaining to water," from aqua "water" (from PIE root *akwa- "water"). For form evolution, compare ewer, from Latin aquarius.

After c. 1600 the sense of "underground channel for wastewater" emerged and predomination, especially "a public drain; a conduit or canal constructed to carry off waste water, etc." Figurative use of this is from 1640s. Sewer rat, the common brown rat when infesting sewers, is from 1861.

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constipation (n.)

c. 1400, "costiveness, bowel condition in which evacuations are obstructed or difficult" (more fully, constipacioun of þe wombe), from Late Latin constipationem (nominative constipatio), noun of state from past-participle stem of Latin constipare "to press or crowd together," from assimilated form of com- "together" (see con-) + stipare "to cram, pack" (see stiff (adj.)).

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compress (v.)

late 14c., "to press or pack (something) together, force or drive into a smaller compass," from Old French compresser "compress, put under pressure," from Late Latin compressus, past participle of  compressare "to press together," frequentative of comprimere "to squeeze," from com "with, together" (see com-) + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" (from PIE root *per- (4) "to strike"). Related: Compressed; compressing. Compressed air is attested from 1660s.

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relay (v.)

c. 1400, relaien, "to set a pack of (fresh) hounds after a quarry;" also "change horses, take a fresh horse," from Old French relaiier, from relai (see relay (n.)). The word seems to have faded out by 19c. but was re-formed in electromagnetics from the noun, in a transitive sense of "pass on or retransmit," originally of telephone signals (1878), later in a transferred sense of "pass on information" (by 1956). Related: Relayed; relaying.

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Joe 
pet-form of Joseph (q.v.). Meaning "generic fellow, man" is from 1846. Used in a wide range of invented names meaning "typical male example of," for example Joe college "typical college man" (1932); Joe Blow "average fellow" is U.S. military slang, first recorded 1941. "Dictionary of American Slang" lists, among other examples, Joe Average, Beige, Lunch Bucket, Public, Sad, Schmoe, Six-pack, Yale, Zilch
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*red- 

*rēd-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to scrape, scratch, gnaw."

It forms (possibly) all or part of: abrade; abrasion; corrode; corrosion; erase; erode; erosion; radula; rascal; rase; rash (n.) "eruption of small red spots on skin;" raster; rat; raze; razor; rodent; rostrum; tabula rasa.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit radati "scrapes, gnaws," radanah "tooth;" Latin rodere "to gnaw, eat away," radere "to scrape;" Welsh rhathu "scrape, polish."

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ratline (n.)

"thin rope," especially, on sailing ships, one of a series of small ropes or lines which form the steps of ladders for going aloft, late 15c., ratling, also ratlin, a word of obscure etymology. Compare Dutch weeflijn, German Webeleine "web line." The spelling ratline is attested from 1773, perhaps by folk etymology influence of rat (n.) + line (n.), "a seamen's jocular name, as if forming ladders for the rats to climb by" [Century Dictionary].

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Coumadin (n.)

by 1953, name for human anti-coagulant use of the rat poison warfarin sodium, abstracted from the chemical name, 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin; earlier known as Dicoumarol, it attained publicity when it was used in 1955 to treat U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower after a heart attack. Coumarin as the name of an aromatic crystalline substance is by 1830 in English, from French coumarine, from coumarou, the native name in Guyana of the tonka or tonquin bean, one source of the substance.

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Fort Sumter 
military installation in South Carolina, U.S., begun in 1827, named for U.S. Revolutionary War officer and Congressman Thomas Sumter (1734-1832), "The Carolina Gamecock." The family name is attested from 1206, from Old French sommetier "driver of a pack horse" (see sumpter). The U.S. Civil War is held to have begun with the firing of rebel batteries on the government-held fort on April 12, 1861.
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arraign (v.)

late 14c., araynen, "to call to account," also "to call up on a criminal charge," from Old French araisnier "speak to, address; accuse (in a law court)," from Vulgar Latin *arrationare, from Latin adrationare, from ad "to" (see ad-) + *rationare, from ratio "argumentation; reckoning, calculation," from rat-, past participle stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count"). The unetymological -g- is a 16c. overcorrection based on reign, etc. Related: Arraigned; arraigning.

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