also co-ordination, c. 1600, "orderly combination," from French coordination (14c.) or directly from Medieval Latin coordinationem (nominative coordinatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin coordinare "to set in order, arrange," from co- "with, together" (see com-) + ordinatio "arrangement," from ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Meaning "action of setting in order" is from 1640s; that of "harmonious adjustment or action," especially of muscles and bodily movements, is from 1855.
also co-ordinate, 1660s, "to place in the same rank," from Latin coordinare "to set in order, arrange," from co- "with, together" (see com-) + ordinatio "arrangement," from ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)).
Meaning "to arrange in proper position relative to each other" (transitive) is from 1847; that of "to work together in order" (intransitive) is from 1863. Related: Coordinated; coordinating.
late 15c. (Caxton), "destroy or derange the order of, throw into confusion," from dis- "not" (see dis-) + order (v.). Replaced earlier disordeine (mid-14c.), from Old French desordainer, from Medieval Latin disordinare "throw into disorder," from Latin dis- + ordinare "to order, regulate," from ordo (genitive ordinis) "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Related: Disordered; disordering.
word formed from the first letters of a series of words, 1943, American English coinage from acro- + -onym "name" (abstracted from homonym; ultimately from PIE root *no-men- "name"). With the exception of cabalistic esoterica and acrostic poetry, this way of forming words was exceedingly uncommon before 20c. For distinction of usage (regretfully ignored on this site), see initialism.
in geology, "of or found in that part of the geological series between the Paleozoic and what was then called the Tertiary," 1840, from Greek mesos "middle" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle") + zoe "life" (from PIE root *gwei- "to live") + -ic. The name was coined by British geologist John Phillips for the fossil era "between" the Paleozoic and what is now the Cenozoic. An older name for it was Secondary.
"to procure unlawfully, to bribe to accomplish a wicked purpose," especially to induce a witness to perjury, "to lure (someone) to commit a crime," 1530s, from French suborner "seduce, instigate, bribe" (13c.) and directly from Latin subornare "employ as a secret agent, incite secretly," originally "equip, fit out, furnish," from sub "under; secretly" (see sub-) + ornare "equip," related to ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). Related: Suborned; suborning.
c. 1300, "connected series of links of metal or other material," from Old French chaeine "chain" (12c., Modern French chane), from Latin catena "chain" (source also of Spanish cadena, Italian catena), which is of unknown origin, perhaps from a PIE root *kat- "to twist, twine" (source also of Latin cassis "hunting net, snare").
As a type of ornament worn about the neck, from late 14c. As a linear measure ("a chain's length") from 1660s. From 1590s as "any series of things linked together." Meaning "a series of stores controlled by one owner or firm" is American English, 1846. Figurative use "that which binds or confines" is from c. 1600.
Chain-reaction is from 1916 in physics, specific nuclear physics sense is from 1938; chain-mail armor is from 1795, from mail (n.2). Before that, mail alone sufficed. Chain letter is recorded from 1892; at first usually to raise money; decried from the start as a nuisance.
Nine out of every ten givers are reluctant and unwilling, and are coerced into giving through the awful fear of "breaking the chain," so that the spirit of charity is woefully absent. [St. Nicholas magazine, vol. xxvi, April 1899]
Chain of command is from 1915. Chain-lightning, visible as jagged or broken lines, is from 1834. Chain-smoker, one who smokes one after another, lighting the next from the stump of the last, is attested from 1885, originally of Bismarck (who smoked cigars), thus probably a loan-translation of German Kettenraucher. Chain-smoking (n.) is from 1895.
boys' knife-throwing game, 1650s, originally mumble-the-peg (1620s), of unknown signification and origin. The usual story is that it is so called because "The last player to complete the series is compelled to draw out of the ground with his teeth a peg which the others have driven in with a certain number of blows with the handle of the knife" [Century Dictionary]; see mumble (v.) in the original sense "eat in a slow, inefficient manner."