Etymology
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meticulous (adj.)

1530s, "fearful, timid," a sense now obsolete, from Latin meticulosus, metuculosus "fearful, timid," literally "full of fear," from metus "fear, dread, apprehension, anxiety," a word of unknown origin. The old word seems to have become archaic after c. 1700, fossilized in a passage of Sir Thomas Browne, though it turns up occasionally and obscurely as late as 1807.

It began to return to English in a sense of "fussy about details" by 1840s, from French méticuleux "timorously fussy" [Fowler, who rails against it, attributes this use in English to "literary critics"], the French descendant of the Latin word, but it took time for this to percolate. Meticulous appears 1852 in Halliwell's "Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words" (with the definition "timorous") and is marked "obsolete" in Craig's dictionary of the same year. It was listed by Richard Trench ["English Past and Present," 1868], who started the movement that became the OED,  among the words that had been "rejected and disallowed by the true linguistic instincts of the national mind."

It is marked archaic in the Imperial Dictionary (1883), which has only the sense "timid," but not so marked in Century Dictionary (1890), which defines it as "Timid; over-careful." It was much criticized, and somewhat defended, in writerly publications c. 1914-1924. Related: Meticulosity.

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metonymy (n.)

in rhetoric, a trope or figure of speech in which the name of one thing is substituted for that of another that is suggested by or closely associated with it (such as the bottle for "alcoholic drink," the Kremlin for "the Russian government"); 1560s, from French métonymie (16c.) and directly from Late Latin metonymia, from Greek metōnymia, literally "change of name," related to metonomazein "to call by a new name; to take a new name," from meta "change" (see meta-) + onyma, dialectal form of onoma "name" (from PIE root *no-men- "name"). It often serves to call up associations not suggested by the literal name. Related: Metonymic; metonymical; metonymically.

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metaphysical (adj.)

early 15c., metaphisicalle, "pertaining to metaphysics," from methaphesik (late 14c.) + -al, and in part from Medieval Latin metaphysicalis, from Medieval Latin metaphysica (see metaphysics). It came to be used more loosely in the sense of "abstract, speculative, apart from ordinary or practical modes of thought" (among others by Samuel Johnson, who applied it to certain 17c. poets, notably Donne and Cowley, who used "witty conceits" and abstruse imagery), and often had more or less a depreciative sense. Related: Metaphysically.

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methodology (n.)

"branch of logic that shows how abstract logical principles are to be applied to the production of knowledge," 1800, from French méthodologie or directly from Modern Latin methodologia; see method + -ology. Often simply a longer variant of method.

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metamorphic (adj.)

1833 (Lyell) in the geological sense, "exhibiting change in form or structure," in reference to rock whose form has been changed by heat or pressure, from Greek meta "trans-" (see meta-) + morphē "form," a word of uncertain origin. Earlier (1816) in a theological sense, "characterized by change of form," from metamorphosis + -ic.

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metabolize (v.)

1887 (transitive) "to subject to metabolism, transform by assimilation or decomposition;" 1934 (intransitive) "to perform metabolism;" from Greek metabole "a change" (see metabolism) + -ize. Related: Metabolized; metabolizing.

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metre (n.)
chiefly British English spelling of meter (n.); for spelling, see -re.
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-meter 
word-forming element meaning "device or instrument for measuring;" commonly -ometer, occasionally -imeter; from French -mètre, from Greek metron "a measure," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure."
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gun-metal (n.)
type of bronze or other alloy formerly used in the manufacture of light cannons (since superseded by steel), 1540s, from gun (n.) + metal. Used attributively of a dull blue-gray color since 1905.
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metastasize 

of a disease, cancer, etc., "pass from one part or organ of the body to another," 1826, from metastasis + -ize. Related: Metastasized; metastasizing.

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