Etymology
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flexion (n.)
c. 1600, "bent part," also, in grammar, "modification of part of a word," from Latin flexionem (nominative flexio) "a bending, swaying; bend, turn, curve," noun of action from past participle stem of flectere "to bend" (see flexible). Flection (18c.) is more recent, less etymological, but said to be more common in modern English, perhaps by influence of affection, direction, where the -ct- is in the Latin word. According to some modern dictionaries, flexion is "confined to anatomical contexts." Related: Flexional; flectional.
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antecedent (n.)

late 14c. in grammar ("noun to which a pronoun refers") and in logic ("if A is, then B is;" A is the antecedent, B the consequent), from Old French antecedent (14c.) or directly from Latin antecedentem (nominative antecedens), noun use of present participle of antecedere "go before, precede," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + cedere "to yield" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield").

Hence "an event upon which another follows" (1610s). As an adjective in English from c. 1400. Related: Antecedently.

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particle (n.)

late 14c., "a bit or fragment, small part or division of a whole, minute portion of matter," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). In grammar, "a part of speech considered of minor consequence or playing a subordinate part in the construction of a sentence" (1530s). Particle physics, which is concerned with sub-atomic particles, is attested from 1969. In construction, particle board (1957) is so called because it is made from chips and shavings of wood.

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pluperfect (adj.)

"noting the time of an action occurring prior to another specified time," c. 1500, pluperfyth, shortened from Latin (tempus praeteritum) plus (quam) perfectum "(past tense) more (than) perfect." This translates Greek khronos hypersyntelikos. See plus and perfect (adj.). In grammar, denoting the pluperfect tense of a verb, as Latin amaveram, English "I had loved."

Qwerby knowyst þe pretyr tens pluperfyth? ffor it spekyth of tyme more þan perfythly passyd, & hath þis Englysch wurd 'hadde', as 'amaueram, I had louyd'. [English grammatical text, c. 1500]
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preterite (adj.)

mid-14c., "having to do with the past," from Old French preterit "past tense" (13c.) and directly from Latin praeteritum (as in tempus praeteritum "time past"), past participle of praeterire "to go by, go past," from praeter "beyond, over; more than" (see preter-) + itum, past participle of ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").

Grammar sense is late 14c. The word also was a noun in Middle English meaning "past times" (late 14c.). Related: Preteritive. Preterite-present attested from 1813.

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paradigm (n.)

late 15c., "an example, a model," from Late Latin paradigma "pattern, example," especially in grammar, from Greek paradeigma "pattern, model; precedent, example," from paradeiknynai "exhibit, represent," literally "show side by side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + deiknynai "to show" (cognate with Latin dicere "to show;" from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). In 20c. it began to be used in the more specific philosophical sense of "logical or conceptual structure serving as a form of thought within a given area of experience," especially in Thomas Kuhn's "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" (1962). Related: Paradigmatic; paradigmatical.

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dialysis (n.)

1580s, in logic and grammar, in the latter "division of one syllable into two," from Latin, from Greek dialysis "dissolution, separation" (used of the disbanding of troops, a divorce, etc.), from dialyein "dissolve, separate," from dia "apart" + lyein "loosen" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

Chemistry sense of "process by which particles are selectively removed from a liquid by consequence of their differing capacity to pass through a membrane into another liquid" is from 1861; the specific sense in medicine, "process of blood purification by allowing it to pass through a membrane" is by 1914. Related: Dialytic. The verb dialyze was formed from the noun on the model of analyze, etc.

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technology (n.)
Origin and meaning of technology

1610s, "a discourse or treatise on an art or the arts," from Greek tekhnologia "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique," originally referring to grammar, from tekhno-, combining form of tekhnē "art, skill, craft in work; method, system, an art, a system or method of making or doing," from PIE *teks-na- "craft" (of weaving or fabricating), from suffixed form of root *teks- "to weave," also "to fabricate." For ending, see -logy.

The meaning "study of mechanical and industrial arts" (Century Dictionary, 1895, gives as example "spinning, metal-working, or brewing") is recorded by 1859. High technology attested from 1964; short form high-tech is from 1972.

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dative (adj., n.)

mid-15c., in grammar, the case of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives denoting an indirect object of the action of the verb, from Latin dativus "pertaining to giving," from datus "given" (from PIE root *do- "to give"); in grammatical use from Greek dotikē (ptōsis) "dative (case)," from dotikos "of giving nature," from dotos "given" (from the same PIE root as the Latin word).

The notion is of the case that belongs to giving or commanding. Typically the case of the indirect object, but sometimes also denoting "motion toward." In old Germanic languages, the "fourth case," catch-all for Indo-European dative, ablative, locative, and other cases. In law, "that may be disposed of at pleasure," from 1530s.

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preposition (n.)

late 14c., preposicioun, in grammar, "indeclinable part of speech regularly placed before and governing a noun in an oblique case and showing its relation to a verb, adjective, or other noun," from Latin praepositionem (nominative praepositio) "a putting before, a prefixing," noun of action from past-participle stem of praeponere "put before," from prae "before" (see pre-) + ponere "put, set, place" (past participle positus; see position (n.)). In grammatical use, a loan-translation of Greek prothesis, literally "a setting before." Old English used foresetnys as a loan-translation of Latin praepositio.

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