Etymology
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Boyd 
in many cases, the family name represents Gaelic or Irish buidhe "yellow," suggesting blond hair, compare Manx name Mac Giolla Buidhe (c. 1100).
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gentlewoman (n.)
early 13c., "woman of good family or breeding," from gentle + woman. It seems never to have developed the looser senses in gentleman; Bret Harte tried gentlewomanliness.
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afterthought (n.)
1660s, "a later thought," from after + thought (n.). As "reflection after an act," 1680s. Sense of "youngest child of a family" (especially one born much later than the others) is by 1902.
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Altaic (adj.)
1801 of the mountains; 1850 as an ethnic and linguistic family (comprising Turkish, etc.), from French Altaïque, from Altaïen, from Altai, name of a mountain range in Asia between Russia and China, a name of uncertain origin.
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archduchess (n.)
1610s, modeled on French archiduchesse; see arch- "chief" + duchess. In later use generally "a princess of the reigning family of Austria," translating German Erzherzogin. Compare archduke, which is the masc. form.
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clan (n.)

"a family, a tribe," especially, among the Highlanders of Scotland, a form of social organization consisting of a tribe holding land in common under leadership of a chieftain, early 15c., from Gaelic clann "family, stock, offspring," akin to Old Irish cland "offspring, tribe," both from Latin planta "offshoot" (see plant (n.)).

The Goidelic branch of Celtic (including Gaelic) had no initial p-, so it substituted k- or c- for Latin p-. The same Latin word in (non-Goidelic) Middle Welsh became plant "children."

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Freya 

goddess of sexual love and beauty in Norse mythology, from Old Norse Freyja, which is related to Old English frea "lord;" Old Saxon frua, Middle Dutch vrouwe "woman, wife," German Frau; see frau).

Frigga is usually considered the goddess of married love; Freya, the goddess of love, the northern Venus. Actually, Frigga is of the Aesir family of Scandinavian myth; Freya, of the Vanir family; the two lines of belief merged, and the two goddesses are sometimes fused, and sometimes confused. [Joseph T. Shipley, "The Origins of English Words," 1984]
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bromeliad (n.)
one of a group of related plants indigenous to South America and the West Indies, from Modern Latin Bromeliaceæ, family name given by Linnæus, for Olaus Bromel (1639-1705), Swedish botanist. Related: Bromeliads.
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Proto-Indo-European (n.)

the hypothetical reconstructed ancestral language of the Indo-European family, by 1905. The time scale of the "language" itself is much debated, but a recent date proposed for it is about 5,500 years ago. 

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Toyota 
Japanese automaker, begun 1930s as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, named for the family name of the founder. There seems to be no one accepted explanation for the change from -d- to -t-.
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