New York City borough, named for Catherine of Braganza, queen of English King Charles II.
city and lake in Switzerland, German Zürich, said to be ultimately from Celtic root *dur- "water."
southern Vietnamese city, capital of former South Vietnam, named for its river, which bears a name of uncertain origin.
city in Japan, from kyo + to, both meaning "capital." Founded 794 as Heionkyo "Capital of Calm and Peace," it also has been known as Miyako and Saikyo. Kyoto Protocol so called because it was initially adopted Dec. 11, 1997, in the Japanese city.
city in northwest Thailand, founded in 1292; the name is Thai northern dialect chiang "town" + mai "new."
chief city of Tuscany, also a fem. proper name, both from Latin Florentia, fem. of Florentius, literally "blooming," from florens (genitive florentis), present participle of florere "to flower" (see flourish). The city name is from Roman Colonia Florentia, "flowering colony," either literal or figurative, and became Old Italian Fiorenze, modern Italian Firenze.
city in England, mid-11c., Stæfford, literally "ford by a landing-place," from Old English stæð "river bank, shore" + ford (n.). County town of Staffordshire, which, as a name for a type of earthenware and porcelain made there is attested from 1765. The city was noted in medieval England as a source of blue cloth.
industrial city in central England, 1086, Bermingehame, literally "homestead of the place (or people) named for Beorma, a forgotten Anglo-Saxon person, whose name probably is a shortening of Beornmund. The Birmingham in Alabama, U.S., was founded 1871 as an industrial center and named for the English city.
masc. proper name, biblical cousin of Esther, from Hebrew Mordekhay, from Akkad. Marduk, chief god of the city of Babylon.