Etymology
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cantilever (n.)
"projecting block or bracket from a building supporting a molding, balcony, etc.," 1660s, probably from cant (n.2) + lever, but earliest form (c. 1610) was cantlapper. First element also might be Spanish can "dog," architect's term for an end of timber jutting out of a wall, on which beams rested. Related: Cantilevered.
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turret (n.)
c. 1300, touret "small tower forming part of a city wall or castle," from Old French torete (12c., Modern French tourette), diminutive of tour "tower," from Latin turris (see tower (n.1)). Meaning "low, flat gun-tower on a warship" is recorded from 1862, later also of tanks. Related: Turreted. Welsh twrd is from English.
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Einstein (n.)
as a type-name for a person of genius, 1920, in reference to German-born theoretical physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who was world-famous from 1919 through media accounts of his work in theoretical physics. According to "German-American Names" (George F. Jones, 3rd ed., 2006) it means literally "place encompassed by a stone wall."
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potwalloper (n.)

also pot-walloper, 1725, "one who boils in a pot," hence "one who prepares his own food," a vulgar alteration of pot-waller (1701), from wall "to boil, from a dialectal survival of Old English weallan "to boil, bubble up" (see well (v.)). The word took on a political association in debates over voting reform in early 19c. England. 

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bulwark (n.)
early 15c., "a fortification outside a city wall or gate; a rampart, barricade," from Middle Dutch bulwerke or Middle High German bolwerc, probably [Skeat] from bole "plank, tree trunk" (from Proto-Germanic *bul-, from PIE root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell") + werc "work" (see work (n.)). Thus "bole-work," a construction of logs. Figurative sense "means of defense or security" is from mid-15c. A doublet of boulevard.
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frieze (n.1)

"sculptured horizontal band in architecture," 1560s, from French frise, originally "a ruff," from Medieval Latin frisium "embroidered border," variant of frigium, which is probably from Latin Phrygium "Phrygian; Phrygian work," from Phrygia, the ancient country in Asia Minor known for its embroidery (Latin also had Phrygiae vestes "ornate garments"). Meaning "decorative band along the top of a wall" was in Old French.

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sill (n.)
Old English syll "beam, threshold, large timber serving as a foundation of a wall," from Proto-Germanic *suljo (source also of Old Norse svill, Swedish syll, Danish syld "framework of a building," Middle Low German sull, Old High German swelli, German Schwelle "sill"), perhaps from PIE root *swel- (3) "post, board" (source also of Greek selma "beam"). Meaning "lower horizontal part of a window opening" is recorded from early 15c.
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loophole (n.)
also loop-hole, mid-15c., from hole (n.). + Middle English loupe "narrow window, slit-opening in a wall" for protection of archers while shooting, or for light and ventilation (c. 1300), which, along with Medieval Latin loupa, lobia probably is a specialized word from a continental Germanic source, such as Middle Dutch lupen "to watch, peer." Figurative sense of "outlet, means of escape" is from 1660s.
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bay (n.2)
"opening in a wall," especially a space between two columns, late 14c. from Old French baee "opening, hole, gulf," noun use of fem. past participle of bayer "to gape, yawn," from Medieval Latin batare "gape," perhaps of imitative origin. Meaning "compartment for storage: is from 1550s. Somewhat confused with bay (n.1) "inlet of the sea," it is the bay in sick-bay and bay window (early 15c.).
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graffiti (n.)
1851, "ancient wall inscriptions found in the ruins of Pompeii," from Italian graffiti, plural of graffito "a scribbling," a diminutive formation from graffio "a scratch or scribble," from graffiare "to scribble," ultimately from Greek graphein "to scratch, draw, write" (see -graphy). They are found in many ancient places, but the habit was especially popular among the Romans. Sense extended 1877 to recently made crude drawings and scribbling in public places.
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