"ubiquitous and repressive but apparently benevolent authority" 1949, from George Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four." The phrase big brother for "older brother" is attested by 1833.
"eye doctor," 1610s, from French oculiste (16c.), from Latin oculus "an eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see"). Middle English had oculister (early 15c.) "an authority on the eye and treatment of eye diseases."
c. 1500, "authority, sovereignty;" 1590s, "action of presiding," from French présidence (14c.) and directly from Medieval Latin praesidentia (see presidency). Rare in English, presidency being the usual word.
late 14c., of diseases, "firmly established," past-participle adjective from confirm. From mid-15c. as "supported by authority or proof." Of persons, "established in the habit, inveterate," from 1826.
1570s, "what someone says," hence "what one has in him to say, a declaration or statement," from say (v.). The Old English noun secge meant "speech."
The meaning "right or authority to be heard in a matter or influence a decision" is from 1610s in have a say; earlier in this sense was have a saying (late 15c.). Extended form say-so "personal assertion" is recorded by 1630s; in the sense of "power, authority" it is by 1896.
"to revolt against lawful authority, with or without armed resistance, especially in the army or navy," 1580s, from mutiny (n.). Alternative mutine is recorded from 1550s. Related: Mutinied; mutinying.
"insurrection, rebellion, uprising against government or authority," 1550s, from French révolte (c. 1500), which is a back-formation from revolter (see revolt (v.)) or else from cognate Italian rivolta.