Etymology
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ligature (n.)

c. 1400, "something used in tying or binding," from Late Latin ligatura "a band," from Latin ligatus, past participle of ligare "to bind" (from PIE root *leig- "to tie, bind"). In modern musical notation, "group of notes slurred together," from 1590s; of letters joined in printing or writing from 1690s.

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copulate (v.)

early 15c., copulaten, "to join" (transitive), from Latin copulatus, past participle of copulare "join together, couple, bind, link, unite," from copula "band, tie, link," from PIE *ko-ap-, from *ko(m)- "together" (see com-) + *ap- (1) "to take, reach" (see apt). The intransitive sense of "unite sexually" is attested from 1630s. Related: Copulated; copulating.

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copulation (n.)

late 14c., copulacioun, "a coupling, joining, uniting," from Latin copulationem (nominative copulatio) "a coupling, joining, connecting," noun of action from past-participle stem of copulare "join together, couple, bind, link, unite," from copula "band, tie, link" (see copulate). Specific sense of "sexual intercourse, coition" is from late 15c., and this became the main sense from 16c.

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constrictive (adj.)

"tending to constrict or compress," c. 1400, from Late Latin constrictivus "drawing together, contracting," from Latin constrict-, past-participle stem of constringere "to bind together, tie tightly, fetter, shackle, chain," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + stringere "to draw tight" (see strain (v.)).

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interlace (v.)

formerly also enterlace, late 14c. (trans.), "unite by crossing the laces," thus, "entangle, bind together," from Old French entrelacier (12c.), from entre- (see entre-) "between" + lacier "to tie, entangle," from laz (see lace (n.)).

Intransitive sense from 1590s. Television sense is from 1927. Related: Interlaced; interlacing; interlacement. The noun is 1904, from the verb.

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runoff (n.)

also run-off, "precipitation water drained by streams and rivers," 1887, from the verbal phrase; see run (v.) + off (adv.). The meaning "deciding race after a tie" is by 1873; the extended sense in reference to an election between the two who got the most votes in the previous, undecided election is attested by 1910, American English.

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disoblige (v.)

c. 1600, "to free from obligation;" 1630s, "to refuse or neglect to oblige," from French désobliger (c. 1300), from des- (see dis-) + obliger, from Latin obligare "to bind, bind up, bandage," figuratively "put under obligation," from ob "to" (see ob-) + ligare "to bind," from PIE root *leig- "to tie, bind."

Colloquial sense of "put to inconvenience" is from 1650s (implied in disobligingness). Related: Disobliged; disobliging; disobligingly.

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constrain (v.)

"to exert force, physical or moral, upon, either in urging to action or restraining from it," early 14c., constreyen, from stem of Old French constreindre (Modern French contraindre) "restrain, control," from Latin constringere "to bind together, tie tightly, fetter, shackle, chain," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + stringere "to draw tight" (see strain (v.)). Related: Constrained; constraining.

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rein (v.)

c. 1300, reinen, "tie (a horse), tether," a sense now obsolete, from rein (n.). From early 15c. as "to pull on the bridle with the reins," to restrain or guide the horse, hence the figurative extension to "put a check on, restrain, control," recorded by 1580s. Related: Reined; reining. To rein up "halt" (1550s) is an image of pulling up on the reins to make a horse halt or back.

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marlinspike (n.)

"pointed iron tool used by sailors to separate strands of rope," 1620s, from spike (n.) + marlin, Middle English merlin (early 15c.) "small line of two strands, used for seizings," from Middle Dutch marlijn "small cord," from marlen "to fasten or secure (a sail)," which is probably frequentative of Middle Dutch maren "to tie, moor" (see moor (v.)). Influenced in Dutch by lijn "line" (n.).

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