Procyon (n.)

bright star in the constellation Canis Minor (the 8th brightest in the sky), 1650s, from Latin, from Greek Prokyōn, the name of the star or the constellation (which has few other visible stars), from pro "before" (see pro-) + kyōn "dog" (from PIE root *kwon- "dog"). So called from its rising just before the "Dog Star," Sirius.

By Roman astronomers, sometimes Latinized as Antecanis. A mid-15c. English Prochion seems to refer to the constellation.

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involve (v.)

late 14c., "envelop, surround; make cloudy or obscure," from Old French involver and directly from Latin involvere "envelop, surround, overwhelm," literally "roll into," from in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + volvere "to roll," from PIE root *wel- (3) "to turn, revolve." Mid-15c. as "concern oneself." Sense of "take in, include" first recorded c. 1600. Related: Involved; Involving.

Obscurest night involved the sky,
The Atlantic billows roared,
[Cowper, "The Castaway"]
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twilight (n.)

"light from the sky when the sun is below the horizon at morning and evening," late 14c. (twilighting), a compound of twi- + light (n.) Cognate with Middle Flemish twilicht, Dutch tweelicht (16c.), Middle High German twelicht, German zwielicht. Exact connotation of twi- in this word is unclear, but it appears to refer to "half" light, rather than the fact that twilight occurs twice a day. Compare also Sanskrit samdhya "twilight," literally "a holding together, junction," Middle High German zwischerliecht, literally "tweenlight." Originally and most commonly in English with reference to evening twilight but occasionally used of morning twilight (a sense first attested mid-15c.). Figurative extension recorded from c. 1600.

Twilight zone is from 1901 in a literal sense, a part of the sky lit by twilight; from 1909 in extended senses in references to topics or cases where authority or behavior is unclear. In the 1909 novel "In the Twilight Zone," the reference is to mulatto heritage. "She was in the twilight zone between the races where each might claim her ...." The U.S. TV series of that name is from 1959.

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diary (n.)
Origin and meaning of diary

1580s, "an account of daily events, a journal kept by one person of his or her experiences and observations," from Latin diarium "daily allowance," later "a journal," neuter of diarius "daily," from dies "day" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god"); also see -ary.

Sense of "a book with blank leaves or dated pages meant for keeping a daily record of events" is from c. 1600. Related: Diarial; diarian.

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"southern France," 1883, from French midi "south," literally "midday" (12c.), from mi "middle" (from Latin medius "middle;" see medial (adj.)) + di "day" (from Latin dies, from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine"). At midday in the northern hemisphere the sun is in the south of the sky. Compare Latin meridianus "of midday, of noon;" also "southerly, to the south" (see meridian), and Middle English mid-dai in its secondary sense "south, to the south" (late 14c.).

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ether (n.)

late 14c., "upper regions of space," from Old French ether (12c.) and directly from Latin aether "the upper pure, bright air; sky, firmament," from Greek aithēr "upper air; bright, purer air; the sky" (opposed to aēr "the lower air"), from aithein "to burn, shine," from PIE *aidh- "to burn" (see edifice).

In ancient cosmology, the element that filled all space beyond the sphere of the moon, constituting the substance of the stars and planets. Conceived of as a purer form of fire or air, or as a fifth element. From 17c.-19c., it was the scientific word for an assumed "frame of reference" for forces in the universe, perhaps without material properties. The concept was shaken by the Michelson-Morley experiment (1887) and discarded early 20c. after the Theory of Relativity won acceptance, but before it went it gave rise to the colloquial use of ether for "the radio" (1899).

The name also was bestowed c. 1730 (Frobenius; in English by 1757) on a volatile chemical compound known since 14c. for its lightness and lack of color (its anesthetic properties weren't fully established until 1842).

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aloft (adv.)

"on high, in the air," c. 1200, from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse a lopt "up above," literally "up in the air," from a "in, on" (see on) + lopt "sky, air, atmosphere; loft, upper room," from the general Germanic word for "air" (cognate with Gothic luftus, Old High German luft, Old English lyft "air;" see loft (n.)). Scandinavian -pt- was pronounced as -ft-. The Old English equivalent was on þa lyft.

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deify (v.)

mid-14c., deifien, "to make god-like;" late 14c., "make a god of, exalt to the rank of a deity," from Old French deifier (13c.), from Late Latin deificare, from deificus "making godlike," from Latin deus "god" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god") + -ficare, combining form of facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Sense of "adore, regard as an object worthy of worship" is from 1580s. Related: Deified; deifying.

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divine (n.)

c. 1300, "soothsayer, sorcerer, astrologer," from Old French devin "soothsayer; theologian" and directly from Latin divinus, "soothsayer, augur," noun use of an adjective meaning "of or belonging to a god," from divus "of or belonging to a god, inspired, prophetic," related to deus "god, deity" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god").

Meaning "ecclesiastic, theologian, man skilled in divinity" is from late 14c. Sense of "divine nature, divineness" is from late 14c.

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divine (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to, of the nature of, or proceeding from God or a god; addressed to God," from Old French divin, devin (12c.), from Latin divinus "of a god," from divus "of or belonging to a god, inspired, prophetic," related to deus "god, deity" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god").

Weakened sense of "excellent in the highest degree, heavenly" had evolved by late 15c. The phrase divine right, indicating one conferred by or based on ordinance of God, is from c. 1600.

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