Etymology
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adept (n.)

"an expert, one who has attained knowledge," especially "one who is skilled in the secrets of an occult science," 1660s, from Latin adeptus (adj.) "having attained" (see adept (adj.)). The Latin adjective was used as a noun in this sense in Medieval Latin among alchemists. It implies natural and acquired ability, whereas expert implies more of experience and practice.

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sophist (n.)

"one who makes use of fallacious arguments," mid-15c., earlier sophister (late 14c.), from Latin sophista, sophistes, from Greek sophistes "a master of one's craft; a wise or prudent man, one clever in matters of daily life," from sophizesthai "to become wise or learned," from sophos "skilled in a handicraft, cunning in one's craft; clever in matters of everyday life, shrewd; skilled in the sciences, learned; clever; too clever," of unknown origin. Greek sophistes came to mean "one who gives intellectual instruction for pay," and at Athens, contrasted with "philosopher," it became a term of contempt.

Sophists taught before the development of logic and grammar, when skill in reasoning and in disputation could not be accurately distinguished, and thus they came to attach great value to quibbles, which soon brought them into contempt. [Century Dictionary]
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smith (n.)

Middle English smith, from Old English smið "blacksmith, armorer, one who works in metal" (jewelers as well as blacksmiths), more broadly, "handicraftsman, practitioner of skilled manual arts" (also including carpenters), from Proto-Germanic *smithaz "skilled worker" (source also of Old Saxon smith, Old Norse smiðr, Danish smed, Old Frisian smith, Old High German smid, German Schmied, Gothic -smiþa, in aiza-smiþa "coppersmith"), from a suffixed form of PIE root *smi- "to cut, work with a sharp instrument" (source also of Greek smilē "knife for cutting and carving, chisel").

Attested as a surname by c. 975. Also used in a Middle English psalter of God, when he created light. Other common surnames meaning "smith" include Ferraro (Italian), Haddad (Arabic), Kovács (Hungarian, a Slavic loan-word), Kowalski (Polish), Herrero (Spanish), Kuznets (Russian), MacGowan (Irish, "son of the blacksmith").

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polytechnic (adj.)

1805, "pertaining to or comprehending instruction in many (technical) subjects," from French École Polytechnique, name of an engineering school founded 1794 (as École des Travaux publics) in Paris; from Greek polytekhnos "skilled in many arts," from polys "many" (from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill") + tekhnē "art" (see techno-). As a noun (short for polytechnic institution) from 1836. Related: Polytechnical.

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rhetorical (adj.)

mid-15c., rethorical, "eloquent, according to the principles of rhetoric," from rhetoric (n.) or else from Latin rhetoricus (in Medieval Latin rethoricus), from Greek rhētorikos "oratorical, rhetorical; skilled in speaking," from rhētōr "orator."

The meaning "pertaining to rhetoric" is from 1520s. In later use also with implication of artificial extravagance. Rhetorical question, "statement put in the form of a question for rhetorical effect only and thus not requiring an answer," is from 1670s. Related: Rhetorically.

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divine (n.)

c. 1300, "soothsayer, sorcerer, astrologer," from Old French devin "soothsayer; theologian" and directly from Latin divinus, "soothsayer, augur," noun use of an adjective meaning "of or belonging to a god," from divus "of or belonging to a god, inspired, prophetic," related to deus "god, deity" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god").

Meaning "ecclesiastic, theologian, man skilled in divinity" is from late 14c. Sense of "divine nature, divineness" is from late 14c.

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expert (adj.)

late 14c., "having had experience; skillful," from Old French expert, espert "experienced, practiced, skilled" and directly from Latin expertus (contracted from *experitus), "tried, proved, known by experience," past participle of experiri "to try, test," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + peritus "experienced, tested," from PIE *per-yo-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk." The adjective tends to be accented on the second syllable, the noun on the first. Related: Expertly; expertness.

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synthetic (adj.)

1690s, as a term in logic, "deductive," from French synthétique (17c.) and directly from Modern Latin syntheticus, from Greek synthetikos "skilled in putting together, constructive," from synthetos "put together, constructed, compounded," past participle of syntithenai "to put together" (see synthesis). From 1874 in reference to products or materials made artificially by chemical synthesis; hence "artificial" (1930). As a noun, "synthetic material," from 1934. Related: Synthetical (1620s in logic).

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artist (n.)

1580s, "one who cultivates one of the fine arts," from French artiste (14c.), from Italian artista, from Medieval Latin artista, from Latin ars (see art (n.)).

Originally especially of the arts presided over by the Muses (history, poetry, comedy, tragedy, music, dancing, astronomy), but also used 17c. for "one skilled in any art or craft" (including professors, surgeons, craftsmen, cooks). Since mid-18c. especially of "one who practices the arts of design or visual arts."

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cosmetic (n.)

c. 1600, "the art of beautifying, art of anointing or decorating the human body," from Latinized form of Greek kosmetike (tekhnē) "the art of dress and ornament," from fem. of kosmetikos "skilled in adornment or arrangement," from kosmein "to arrange, adorn," from kosmos "order; ornament" (see cosmos). The adjective is feminine because tekhne is a feminine noun.

Meaning "a preparation for beautifying, preparation that renders the n soft and pure or improves the complexion" (originally also the hair) is attested from 1640s. Related: Cosmetics.

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