"relating to significance or meaning," 1894, from French sémantique, applied by Michel Bréal (1883) to the psychology of language, from Greek sēmantikos "significant," from sēmainein "to show by sign, signify, point out, indicate by a sign," from sēma "sign, mark, token; omen, portent; constellation; grave" (Doric sama), from PIE root *dheie- "to see, look" (source also of Sanskrit dhyati "he meditates;" see zen).
The word has tended to become loose in application. Semanticize "invest (something) with meaning; analyze semantically" is by 1942.
Old English stream "a course of water," from Proto-Germanic *strauma- (source also of Old Saxon strom, Old Norse straumr, Danish strøm, Swedish ström, Norwegian straum, Old Frisian stram, Dutch stroom, Old High German stroum, German Strom "current, river"), from PIE root *sreu- "to flow."
From early 12c. as "anything issuing from a source and flowing continuously." Meaning "current in the sea" (as in Gulf Stream) is recorded from late 14c., as is the sense of "steady current in a river." Stream of consciousness in lit crit first recorded 1930, originally in psychology (1855). Stream of thought is from 1890.
c. 1600, "part or character one takes," from French rôle "part played by a person in life," literally "roll" (of paper) on which an actor's part is written, from Old French rolle (see roll (n.)). Not originally in English with direct reference to actors and the stage, but figurative of them. The meaning "any conspicuous function performed characteristically by someone" is by 1875. In the social psychology sense is from 1913. Role model, one taken by others as a model in performance of some role, is attested by 1957.
late 14c., "a barrier, a fence," from Old French closure "enclosure; that which encloses, fastening, hedge, wall, fence," also closture "barrier, division; enclosure, hedge, fence, wall" (12c., Modern French clôture), from Late Latin clausura "lock, fortress, a closing" (source of Italian chiusura), from past participle stem of Latin claudere "to close" (see close (v.)).
Sense of "act of closing, a bringing to a close" is from early 15c. In legislation, especially "closing or stopping of debate" (compare cloture). Sense of "tendency to create ordered and satisfying wholes" is 1924, from Gestalt psychology.
1825, "a rendering rational, act of subjection to rational tests or principles," from rationalize + -ation. The specific sense in psychology in reference to subconscious means to justify behavior to make it seem rational or socially acceptable is by 1908.
Of the three works now on our table, the two which we have placed first have these laudable objects in view; an improvement on the former versions of the Psalms as compositions, and the rationalization, if we may so speak, of our Church psalmody. [The British Critic, London, Jan.-June 1825]
1944, from a specialized use in psychology of German Angst "neurotic fear, anxiety, guilt, remorse," from Old High German angust, from Proto-Germanic *angustu-(source also of Old Frisian ongost, Old High German angust, Middle Dutch ancst "fear," also Old English enge, Old Saxon engi, Gothic aggwus "narrow"), from PIE *anghosti-, suffixed form of root *angh- "tight, painfully constricted, painful." Compare anger.
George Eliot used it (in German) in 1849, and it was popularized in English early 20c. by translation of Freud's work, but as a foreign word until 1940s. Old English had a cognate word, angsumnes "anxiety," but it died out.
"quality of perceiving a complex organization of things or events as an organized whole and also as more than the sum of the parts," 1922, from German Gestaltqualität (1890, introduced in philosophy by German philosopher Christian von Ehrenfels, 1859-1932), from German gestalt "shape, form, figure, configuration, appearance," abstracted from ungestalt "deformity," noun use of adj. ungestalt "misshapen," from gestalt, obsolete past participle of stellen "to set, place, arrange," from Old High German stellen, from Proto-Germanic *stalljanan, from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand, put in order," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place. As a school of psychology, it was founded c. 1912 by M. Wertheimer, K. Koffka, W. Köhler.
1885, in the criminal psychology sense, "a morally irresponsible person," considered as mentally deranged; "one who obeys his impulses regardless of social codes," a back-formation from psychopathic.
The Daily Telegraph had, the other day, a long article commenting on a Russian woman who had murdered a little girl. A Dr. Balinsky prevailed upon the jury to give a verdict of acquittal, because she was a "psychopath." The Daily Telegraph regards this term as a new coinage, but it has been long known amongst Spiritualists, yet in another sense. [The Medium and Daybreak, Jan. 16, 1885]
The case alluded to, and Balinsky's means of procuring the acquittal, were briefly notorious in England and brought the word into currency in the modern sense.
"inducing erotic sensation or sexual desire," 1889, from Greek eros "sexual love" (see Eros) + -genous "producing." A slightly earlier variant was erogenic (1887), from French érogénique. Both, as OED laments, are improperly formed. Erogenous zone attested by 1905.
In this connection reference may be made to the well-known fact that in some hysterical subjects there are so-called "erogenous zones" simple pressure on which suffices to evoke the complete orgasm. There is, perhaps, some significance, from our present point of view, in the fact that, as emphasized by Savill ("Hysterical Skin Symptoms," Lancet, January 30 1904) the skin is one of the very best places to study hysteria. [Havelock Ellis, "Studies in the Psychology of Sex," 1914]