mid-14c., "what one deserves, just desserts," from Anglo-French and Old North French reward, rouwart, back-formation from rewarder (see reward (v.)).
The meaning "return or payment for service, hardship, etc.," also "something given in recognition of merit, virtue, etc., a prize" is from late 14c. Also from late 14c. sometimes "punishment, recompense for evil-doing." The sense of "sum of money in exchange for capture of a criminal or fugitive or for return of a lost item" is from 1590s.
A doublet of regard (n.), reward also was used in Middle English in the senses now given to that word: "a regarding, heeding, notice, observation," also "respect, esteem."
mid-14c., consideracioun, "a beholding, looking at," also "a keeping in mind," also "contemplation, reflection," from Old French consideracion (12c., Modern French considération) and directly from Latin considerationem (nominative consideratio) "consideration, contemplation, reflection," noun of action from past-participle stem of considerare "to look at closely, observe" (see consider).
Meaning "a taking into account, act of paying attention to" is from late 14c.; that of "examination, observation" is from early 15c.. Sense of "thoughtful or sympathetic regard" is from c. 1400. Meaning "that which is or should be considered" is from late 15c. Meaning "something given in payment" (as recompense for service) is from c. 1600.
c. 1200, contemplacioun, "religious musing," from Old French contemplation and directly from Latin contemplationem (nominative contemplatio) "act of looking at," noun of action from past-participle stem of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate," originally "to mark out a space for observation" (as an augur does), from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + templum "area for the taking of auguries" (see temple (n.1)).
From late 14c. as "reflection, thinking, thought, act of holding an idea continuously before the mind." Meaning "act of looking attentively at anything" is from late 15c.
"a collection into one mass or aggregate," 1610s, from Latin congeries "heap, pile, collected mass," from congerere "to bring together, pile up," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gerere "to carry, perform" (see gest). False singular congery is attested by 1866.
Man should have some sense of responsibility to the human congeries. As a matter of observation, very few men have any such sense. No social order can exist very long unless a few, at least a few, men have such a sense. [Ezra Pound, "ABC of Economics," 1933]
mid-14c., conisance, "device or mark by which something or someone is known," from Anglo-French conysance "recognition," later, "knowledge," from Old French conoissance "acquaintance, recognition; knowledge, wisdom" (Modern French connaissance), from past participle of conoistre "to know," from Latin cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com "together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know" (from PIE root *gno- "to know").
Meaning "knowledge by observation or notice, understanding, information" is from c. 1400. In law, "the exercise of jurisdiction, the right to try a case" (mid-15c.). Meaning "acknowledgment, admission" is from 1560s. The -g- was restored in English spelling 15c. and has gradually affected the pronunciation, which was always "con-." The old pronunciation lingered longest in legal use.
1630s, "to mark out, distinguish," a sense now obsolete, modeled on French remarquer "to mark, note, heed," formed in French from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see re-), + marquer "to mark," which probably is from Frankish or another Germanic source such as Old High German marchon "to delimit" (see mark (n.1)).
Meaning "take notice of, mark out in the mind" is from 1670s; that of "make a comment, express, as a thought that has occurred to the speaker or writer" is attested from 1690s, from the notion of "make a verbal observation" or "call attention to specific points." Related: Remarked; remarking.
"observation or diagram of the heavens, showing the positions of planets, on any given day, used by astrologers," mid-16c., from French horoscope, from Latin horoscopum/horoscopus, from Greek hōroskopos "nativity, horoscope," also "one who casts a horoscope, one who observes the hour of a birth," from hōra "hour; season; period of time" (see hour) + skopos "watcher; what is watched" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe").
The notion is of "observing the hour" (of someone's birth, etc.). The word was in late Old English and Middle English as horoscopum, from Latin, but the modern form is considered to be a reborrowing. Old English glossed Latin horoscopus with tidsceawere ("time-shower"). Related: Horoscopic; horiscopal. Horoscopy "the casting of a nativity" is attested from 1650s, from Latin horoscopium, from Greek hōroskopeion, from hōroskopia.
"belief in the omnipotence of scientific knowledge and methods and in their applicability to everything," a derogatory term, by 1870 (G.B. Shaw); see science + -ism. An earlier word was scientificism (1825) "restriction of analysis or explanation to what is scientifically demonstrable."
Particularly is the present age of science characterized by a predominance of observation over reflection. One would think from the general tendency in this direction that science was little else than gathering of facts. So it has come to pass that a fresh discovery gives warrant for any inference,—for any theory. ... That facts should be valued mainly for the principles they reveal, modern scientism could hardly understand, much less believe. [Henry N. Day, "President McCosh's Logic," The New Englander, July, 1870]
1834, "fact or condition of being relative, existence as an immediate object of the understanding or experience, existence only in relation to a thinking mind," (apparently coined by Coleridge, in "Notes on Waterland's Vindication of Christ's Divinity"), from relative (adj.) + -ity. In scientific use, connected to the theory of Albert Einstein (1879-1955) having to do with the dependence of observation on the relative motion of observer and object, published in 1905 (special theory of relativity) and 1915 (general theory of relativity), but the word was used in roughly this sense by J.C. Maxwell in 1876. An earlier noun in the sense of "state of being relative" was relativeness (1670s).
also sometimes Sabbatharian, 1610s, "a Christian or Jew unusually strict about Sabbath observation," from Latin sabbatarius (adj.), from sabbatum (see Sabbath). Especially of members of Christian sects which maintained the Sabbath should be observed on the seventh day of the week (and not the first) is from 1640s; earlier sabbatary (1590s). It took on tones of reproach when used of Puritans deemed overzealous to interdict worldly pastimes and recreations on the Sabbath.
Not to be confused with Sabbatian (n.) "member of a sect founded by Sabbatus, a convert from Judaism "who seceded from the Novatianists before 380, having adopted Quartodeciman views" [OED]. Related: Sabbatartianism. Sabbatism is used in the general sense of "observance of the Sabbath or a sabbath as a day of rest from labor" (from Late Latin sabbatismus, from Greek sabbatismos).