1796, "a painting on a revolving cylindrical surface," representing scenes too extended to be beheld all at once, coined c. 1789 by inventor, Irish artist Robert Barker, literally "a complete view," from pan- "all" + Greek horama "sight, spectacle, that which is seen," from horan "to look, see," which is possibly from PIE root *wer- (3) "to perceive, observe." Meaning "comprehensive survey, complete or entire view" is by 1801.
"to put a mark on," Old English mearcian (West Saxon), merciga (Anglian) "to trace out boundaries;" in late Old English "make a mark or marks on," from Proto-Germanic *markojan (source also of Old Norse merkja, Old Saxon markon "appoint, observe, remark," Old Frisian merkia, Old High German marchon "to limit, plan out," German merken "to mark, note," Middle Dutch and Dutch merken "to set a mark on"), from the root of mark (n.1).
Influenced by the Scandinavian cognates. Meaning "to have a mark" is from c. 1400; that of "to notice, observe" is late 14c. Figurative sense of "designate as if by placing a mark on," hence "to destine," is from late Old English. Meaning "be a noteworthy feature of" is by 1660s. To mark time (1833) is from military drill, originally "move the feet as if marching but remain in place."
The verbs in Romanic are from the nouns, which are early borrowings from Germanic: Old French merchier "to mark, note, stamp, brand," French marquer "to mark," Spanish marcar, Italian marcare.
1590s, "decorated entrance of a building," from French frontispice (16c.), which is probably from Italian frontespizio and Medieval Latin frontispicium "facade," originally "a view of the forehead, judgment of character through facial features," from Latin frons (genitive frontis) "forehead" (see front (n.)) + specere "to look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). Sense of "illustration facing a book's title page" first recorded 1680s. The English spelling alteration apparently is from confusion with unrelated piece (n.).
1580s, "characterized by looking to the future," from obsolete French prospectif and directly from Medieval Latin prospectivus "affording a prospect; pertaining to a prospect," from Latin prospect-, past-participle stem of prospicere "look out on, look forward," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + specere "look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). The sense of "being in prospect or expectation, looked forward to" is by 1829.
Also used as a noun in various senses: "outlook, prospect, view" (1590s); "spy glass, telescope" (17c.), from the adjectival sense of "suitable for viewing at a distance" (c. 1600). Related: Prospectively.
"fame, renown, glory," 1799, probably originally in university slang, from Greek kydos "glory, fame," especially in battle, "a poetical word, found chiefly in the Iliad and Odyssey" [Century Dictionary], literally "that which is heard of," perhaps from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive." In form the word is a Greek singular noun, but the final -s often is mistaken as a plural suffix in English, leading to the barbarous back-formation kudo (attested by 1936).
c. 1300, caucioun, "bail, guarantee, pledge," from Old French caution "security, surety" (13c.), from Latin cautionem (nominative cautio) "caution, care, foresight, precaution," noun of action from past participle stem of cavere "to be on one's guard" (from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive").
The Latin sense re-emerged in English as "prudence in regard to danger" (1650s). Meaning "word of warning, monitory advice" is from c. 1600. Meaning "anything which excites alarm or astonishment" is U.S. slang, 1835.
"look down upon, scorn, disdain, treat with contempt," c. 1300, despisen, from Old French despis-, present-participle stem of despire "to despise," from Latin despicere "look down on, scorn," from de- "down" (see de-) + spicere/specere "to look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). Related: Despised; despising.
To despise is to look down upon with strong contempt from a superior position of some sort. To scorn is to have an extreme and passionate contempt for. To disdain is to have a high-minded abhorrence of, or a proud and haughty contempt of. [Century Dictionary]