Etymology
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Balearic (adj.)
"of or pertaining to the islands in the Mediterranean just east of Spain," 1660s, from Latin Balearicus, from Greek Baliarikos, from the ancient name of the islands and their inhabitants; traditionally "the slingers" (from ballein "to throw, sling") in reference to their weapons.
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bunion (n.)

"swelling on the foot caused by inflammation of a bursa," 1718, apparently from East Anglian dialectic bunny "lump, swelling" (16c.), which is probably from French buigne "bump on the head, swelling from a blow" (see bun).

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due (adv.)

1590s, "duly," from due (adj.). In reference to points of the compass, "directly, exactly" (as in due east) it is attested from c. 1600, originally nautical, from notion of "fitting, rightful."

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betel (n.)
1550s, name of a creeping or climbing plant of the East Indies, also of its leaf (1580s), which is chewed, probably via Portuguese betel, from Malayalam (Dravidian) vettila, from veru ila "simple leaf."
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thump (v.)
1530s, "to strike hard," probably imitative of the sound made by hitting with a heavy object (compare East Frisian dump "a knock," Swedish dialectal dumpa "to make a noise"). Related: Thumped; thumping.
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Tanzania 
east African nation, formed 1964 by union of Tanganyika (named for the lake, the name of which is of unknown origin) and Zanzibar. With country-name word-forming element -ia. Related: Tanzanian.
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aga 
also agha, title of rank, especially in Turkey, c. 1600, from Turkish agha "chief, master, lord," related to East Turkic agha "elder brother." The Agha Khan is the title of the spiritual leader of Nizari Ismaili Muslims.
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Manchuria 

large part of China east of Mongolia and north of Korea, named for the Manchu (literally "pure") people + -ia. Related: Manchurian. Manchurian Candidate is 1959 as a novel, 1962 as a film.

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macaque (n.)
East Indian monkey, 1757, from French macaque, from Portuguese macaco "monkey," a Bantu word brought from Africa to Brazil (where it was applied 17c. to a type of monkey there). Introduced as a genus name 1840.
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dandruff (n.)

"scurf which forms on the scalp or skin of the head and comes off in small scales or dust," 1540s; the first element is obscure (despite much speculation, OED concludes "nothing satisfactory has been suggested"). The second element probably is Northumbrian or East Anglian dialectal huff, hurf "scab," from Old Norse hrufa, from Proto-Germanic *hreufaz, source of Old English hreofla "leper." Middle English words for it were bran (late 14c.), furfur (c. 1400, from Latin), scales (mid-15c.).

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