Etymology
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saprophyte (n.)

"bacteria or fungus that grows on decaying organic matter," 1867, from French, from Greek sapros "putrid, rotten" (see sapro-) + phyton "plant" (see -phyte). Related: Saprophytism.

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hand-out (n.)

also handout, hand out, 1882, "alms or food given to a beggar," hobo slang, from the verbal phrase; see hand (v.) + out (adv.). Meaning "distributed printed informational matter" is from 1927.

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loyalty (n.)

c. 1400, from Old French loialte, leaute "loyalty, fidelity; legitimacy; honesty; good quality" (Modern French loyauté), from loial (see loyal). The Medieval Latin word was legalitas. The earlier Middle English form was leaute (mid-13c.), from the older French form. Loyalty oath first attested 1852.

Allegiance ... is a matter of principle, and applies especially to conduct; the oath of allegiance covers conduct only. Loyalty is a matter of both principle and sentiment, conduct and feeling; it implies enthusiasm and devotion .... [Century Dictionary, 1897]
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coagulation (n.)

c. 1400, coagulacioun, "act of changing from a fluid to a thickened state," from Latin coagulationem (nominative coagulatio), noun of action from past participle stem of coagulare "cause to curdle" (see coagulate). Meaning "mass or quantity of coagulated matter" is from 1660s.

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biogeny (n.)

1870, "science or doctrine of biogenesis; history of organic evolution;" see bio- + -geny. As "history of the evolution of organisms, genesis or evolution of matter manifesting life (including ontogeny and phylogeny)," 1879.

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melanosis (n.)

"abnormal deposition of pigmentary matter in organs or parts of the body," by 1815, medical Latin, from Greek melanosis "a becoming black," from melanoun "to become black," from melas (genitive melanos); see melano-. Related: Melanotic.

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radio-carbon (n.)

"carbon-14," a radioactive isotope of carbon, 1940, from radio-, combining form of radioactive, + carbon. Radio-carbon dating is attested from 1949 (the carbon-14 in organic matter decays at a known rate from the time of death).

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curcumin (n.)

coloring matter of turmeric, 1838 (by 1805 in German), from Curcuma, genus name for plants of the ginger family, from which the chemical was drawn, Medieval Latin, from Arabic kurkum "saffron, turmeric." Compare crocus.

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trifle (n.)

c. 1200, trufle "false or idle tale," later "matter of little importance" (c. 1300), from Old French trufle "mockery," diminutive of truffe "deception," of uncertain origin. As a type of light confection from 1755.

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plasm (n.)

1610s, "mold or matrix in which anything is cast or formed to a particular shape" (a sense now obsolete); see plasma. In biology, the meaning "living matter of a cell, protoplasm" is attested by 1864.

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