Etymology
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dap (n.)

fist-bump greeting, in African-American popular culture by 1972, with various theories as to origin and name meaning. Probably imitative (dap was used in 19c. for the bounce of a ball or the skip of a stone on water). Dap, meanwhile, is listed in the DAS as African-American vernacular c. 1950 for "aware, up to date," also "stylish, well-dressed," in the latter case at least a shortening of dapper. Controversial during the Vietnam War when used by U.S. soldiers, as it often was regarded by whites as a ritual act of black solidarity.

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contentment (n.)

mid-15c., contentement, "satisfactory payment" (of a debt; a sense now obsolete), from Old French contentment, from contenter (see content (v.)). Meaning "That happiness which consists in being satisfied with present conditions" is from 1590s.

Contentment is passive; satisfaction is active. The former is the feeling of one who does not needlessly pine after what is beyond his reach, nor fret at the hardship of his condition; the latter describes the mental condition of one who has all he desires, and feels pleasure in the contemplation of his situation. A needy man may be contented, but can hardly be satisfied. [Century Dictionary]
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childlike (adj.)

1580s, "proper to a child," from child + like (adj.). Meaning "like a child" in a good sense (distinguished from childish) is from 1738. "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" (c. 1380) has child-gered "boyish, lighthearted."

Childlike and childish express that which is characteristic of a child, the former applying to that which is worthy of approbation, or at least does not merit disapproval, and the latter usually to that which is not: as, a childlike freedom from guile; a childish petulance. To express that which belongs to the period of childhood, without qualifying it as good or bad, child or childhood is often used in composition .... [Century Dictionary, 1897] 
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dialysis (n.)

1580s, in logic and grammar, in the latter "division of one syllable into two," from Latin, from Greek dialysis "dissolution, separation" (used of the disbanding of troops, a divorce, etc.), from dialyein "dissolve, separate," from dia "apart" + lyein "loosen" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

Chemistry sense of "process by which particles are selectively removed from a liquid by consequence of their differing capacity to pass through a membrane into another liquid" is from 1861; the specific sense in medicine, "process of blood purification by allowing it to pass through a membrane" is by 1914. Related: Dialytic. The verb dialyze was formed from the noun on the model of analyze, etc.

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litany (n.)

c. 1200, "solemn prayer of supplication," from Old French letanie (13c., Modern French litanie) and directly from Medieval Latin letania, Late Latin litania (source also of Spanish letania, Italian litania), from Greek litaneia "prayer, an entreating," from lite "prayer, supplication, entreaty," a word of unknown origin. From the notion of monotonous enumeration of petitions in Christian prayer services came the generalized sense of "repeated series" (early 19c.), which originated in French.

For those who know the Greek words, a litany is a series of prayers, a liturgy is a canon of public service; the latter in practice includes prayer, but does not say so. [Fowler]

Related: Litaneutical.

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meet (adj.)

c. 1300, mēte, "having the right shape or size," from Old English gemæte, Anglian *gemete, "suitable, having the same dimensions," from Proto-Germanic *ga-mætijaz (source also of Old Norse mætr, Old High German gimagi, German gemäß "suitable"), from collective prefix *ga- + PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." The formation is the same as that of commensurate. Meaning "proper, appropriate" is from early 14c.; that of "fit (to do something)" is from late 14c.

The mountain sheep are sweeter,
But the valley sheep are fatter;
We therefore deem'd it meeter
To carry off the latter.
[Thomas Love Peacock, from "The War-song of Dinas Vawr"]
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mat (n.2)

"sheet of backing material," 1845, from French mat "dull surface or finish" (15c.), noun use of Old French mat (adj.) "dull, beaten down," for which see mat (adj.). The word has been confused with mat (n.1), especially as the latter was used late 19c. for "piece of thick paper or other material placed for ornament or protection immediately under the glass of a picture-frame, with the central part cut out, for the proper display of the picture." As a verb, "to mount (a print) on a cardboard backing," by 1965. Related: Matted; matting.

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turbid (adj.)

"muddy, foul with extraneous matter, thick, not clear," used of liquids having the lees disturbed or colors, 1620s, from Latin turbidus "muddy, full of confusion," from turbare "to confuse, bewilder," from turba "turmoil, crowd," which is of uncertain origin. De Vaan writes:

Turba seems most similar to [Greek syrbe, Attic tyrbe] 'noise, commotion', ... which are probably loanwords. In that case, Latin would have borrowed the word from a Greek dialect, or both Greek and Latin borrowed it from a third source. In view of the quite well-developed word family already in Plautus, which suggests that turba had been in the language for some time, the latter option seems preferable.

Related: Turbidly; turbidness.

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empathetic (adj.)

1909, from empathy on model of sympathetic and said to have been originally meant to be distinct from empathic. A 1918 article in The Journal of Abnormal Psychology (vol. XIII) emphatically recommended empathic:

Sympathetic, the adjective, seems to have built up—so philologists say—on the analogy of pathetic: that is, sympathetic ought to be sympathic as indeed in some languages it becomes. And a little of the pathos of pathetic has usually clung to sympathetic. As for empathy, however, the adjective empathic seems to be more suitable than empathetic, if only because the latter would even more damagingly suggest pathos. [E.E. Southard]

Related: Empathetically.

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giddy-up (interj.)

command to a horse to go, 1909, probably an extended form of earlier giddap (1867), itself probably from get up. Compare gee.

The terms used to start horses in harness and to urge them to a better appreciation of the value of time comprise vulgar corruptions of ordinary speech and peculiar inarticulate sounds. Throughout England and the United States drivers start their horses by picking up the reins, drawing them gently against the animals' mouths, and exclaiming go 'long and get up; the latter appears in the forms get ap (a as in hat), giddap, and gee-hup or gee-up. [H. Carrington Bolton, "Talking to Domestic Animals," in The American Anthropologist, March 1897]
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