Etymology
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banneret (n.)
c. 1300, an order of knighthood, originally in reference to one who could lead his men into battle under his own banner (q.v.). Later it meant one who received rank for valiant deeds done in the king's presence in battle. Also "a small banner" (c. 1300, also bannerette).
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Orphic (adj.)

"of or related to Orpheus or the doctrines attributed to him," 1670s, from Latinized form of Greek orphikos "pertaining to Orpheus," the legendary master musician of ancient Thrace, son of Eagrus and Calliope, husband of Eurydice, who had the power of charming all living things and inanimate objects with his lyre. His name is of unknown origin. In later times he was accounted a philosopher and adept in secret knowledge, and various mystic doctrines were associated with his name, whence Orphic mysteries, etc. (late 17c.). The earlier adjective was Orphean (1590s). Related: Orphism.

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Cartesian (adj.)
pertaining to the works or ideas of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596-1650), 1650s, from Cartesius, the Latinized form of his surname (regarded as Des Cartes) + -ian. In addition to his philosophy (based on the fundamental principle cogito, ergo sum), he developed a system of coordinates for determining the positions of points on a plane.
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careerist (n.)
"person intent on the furtherance of his working or professional career," 1906, from career (n.) + -ist. Related: Careerism.
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Bobadil (n.)
"blustering braggart," from the name of a boastful character in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour" (1598).
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Kantian (adj.)
also Kantean, 1796, of or pertaining to German thinker Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) or his philosophy.
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deluge (n.)

late 14c., "an overflowing of water, a great flood, Noah's Flood in Genesis," from Old French deluge (12c.), earlier deluve, from Latin diluvium "flood, inundation," from diluere "wash away," from dis- "away" (see dis-) + -luere, combining form of lavere "to wash" (from PIE root *leue- "to wash"). Figurative sense of "anything that overflows or floods" is from early 15c.

After me the deluge (F. après moi le déluge), a saying ascribed to Louis XV, who expressed thus his indifference to the results of his policy of selfish and reckless extravagance, and perhaps his apprehension of coming disaster. [Century Dictionary]
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sharif (n.)
1550s, shereef, from Arabic sharif "noble, glorious," from sharafa "to be exalted." A descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima.
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Machiavelli 

Florentine statesman and author (1469-1527); see Machiavellian. His name was Englished 16c.-18c. as Machiavel.

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subsidiarity (n.)
1936, from German Subsidiarität, paraphrasing the Latin of Pius XI in his Quadragesimo Anno of 1931; see subsidiary + -ity.
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