Etymology
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impressionism (n.)
1839 as a term in philosophy, from impression + -ism. With reference to the French art movement, 1879, from impressionist. Extended 1880s to music (Debussy), literature, etc.
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Risorgimento (n.)

movement which culminated in the unification and independence of Italy, 1889, from Italian, literally "uprising" (of Italy against Austria, c. 1850-60), from risorgere, from Latin resurgere "rise again, lift oneself, be restored" (see resurgent).

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philosophe (n.)

also philosoph, "Enlightenment rationalist and skeptic," especially in reference to any of the French Encyclopædists, often disparaging or with contemptuous implication (when used by believers), 1774, from French philosophe, literally "philosopher" (Old French filosofe; see philosopher). Usually italicized in English, but nativized by Peter Gay ("The Enlightenment," 1966) and others. Also compare philosophist. It also was the older word for "philosopher" in English, from Old English to c. 1400.

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vertigo (n.)
early 15c., from Latin vertigo "dizziness, sensation of whirling," originally "a whirling or spinning movement," from vertere "to turn" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend").
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swirl (n.)
early 15c., "whirlpool, eddy," originally Scottish, of uncertain origin, perhaps related to dialectal Norwegian svirla or Dutch zwirrelen "to whirl." The meaning "whirling movement" is from 1818.
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transcendentalism (n.)
1803, in reference to Kant, later to Schelling; 1842 in reference to the New England religio-philosophical movement among American followers of German writers; from transcendental + -ism.
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animal (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to the animal spirit of man," that is, "pertaining to the merely sentient (as distinguished from the intellectual, rational, or spiritual) qualities of a human being," from Latin animalis, from animale (see animal (n.)).

From 1540s as "pertaining to sensation;" 1630s as "pertaining to or derived from beasts;" 1640s as "pertaining to the animal kingdom" (as opposed to vegetable or mineral); 1650s as "having life, living." Animal rights is attested from 1879; animal liberation from 1973. Animal magnetism originally (1784) referred to mesmerism.

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overseas (adj.)

1580s, "foreign, from beyond the sea," from earlier oversea "transmarine, of or pertaining to movement over the sea," 1550, from over- + sea. The adverb, "across or beyond the sea," is attested from 1580s, from earlier adverb oversea (late Old English). As an adjective, 1892 in English; earlier oversea, "of or pertaining to movement over the sea"(1749). Popularized during World War I as a British euphemism for "colonial." As a noun, "foreign parts," by 1919.

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hurrah (interj.)
1680s, apparently an alteration of huzza; it is similar to shouts recorded in German, Danish, and Swedish; perhaps it was picked up by the English soldiery during the Thirty Years' War. Hurra was said to be the battle-cry of Prussian soldiers during the War of Liberation (1812-13), "and has since been a favourite cry of soldiers and sailors, and of exultation" [OED]. Hooray is its popular form and is almost as old. Also hurray (1780); hurroo (1824); hoorah (1798). As a verb from 1798. American English hurra's nest "state of confusion" is from 1829.
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cumbrous (adj.)

late 14c., of things, "obstructing movement or vision;" c. 1400, "cumbersome, troublesome, clumsy, unwieldy, difficult to use," also of persons, "causing trouble," from cumber + -ous.

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