"prank, caper," 1792, slang, perhaps from the name of the legendary Carthaginian queen in the "Aeneid." Usually in phrase to cut didoes. Century Dictionary repeats a story that attributes it to her having made a bargain for as much land as could be covered by a hide, then cutting the hide into a long, thin strip so as to enclose a large tract, but this is not in the early references to the term, which regard its origin as mysterious.
late 14c., determinen, "to settle, decide upon; state definitely; fix the bounds of; limit in time or extent," also "come to a firm decision or definite intention" (to do something), from Old French determiner (12c.) and directly from Latin determinare "to enclose, bound, set limits to," from de "off" (see de-) + terminare "to mark the end or boundary," from terminus "end, limit" (see terminus).
Meaning "render judgment" is from early 15c. Sense of "give direction or tendency to" is from early 15c. Meaning "to find (as the solution of a problem)" is from 1640s. Related: Determined; determining; determiner.
late 14c., "self-restraint, moderation," especially with regard to desires and passions, "moderation in sexual intercourse, chastity, restraint of the sexual passions within lawful bounds," from Old French continence (14c.) and directly from Latin continentia "a holding back, repression," abstract noun from continent-, present-participle stem of continere "to hold back, check," also "hold together, enclose," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").
In reference to the body's eliminatory functions, from 1915. Related: Continency.
"enclosed place for animals," especially an enclosure maintained by authorities for confining cattle or other beasts when at large or trespassing, late 14c., from a late Old English word attested in compounds (such as pundfald "penfold, pound"), related to pyndan "to dam up, enclose (water)," and thus from the same root as pond. Ultimate origin unknown. Also used as a storage place for other goods seized; as a lot for impounded motor vehicles by 1970.
"landing place, place where vessels are loaded and unloaded, a wharf," 1690s, a spelling variant of Middle English key, keye, caye "wharf" (c. 1300; mid-13c. in place names), from Old North French cai (Old French chai, 12c., Modern French quai) "sand bank," from Gaulish caium (5c.), from Old Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose" (source also of Welsh cae "fence, hedge," Cornish ke "hedge"), from PIE root *kagh- "to catch, seize; wickerwork, fence" (see hedge (n.)). Spelling altered in English by influence of French quai.
early 15c., "company of soldiers, band of warriors," from French cohorte (14c.) and directly from Latin cohortem (nominative cohors) "enclosure," with meaning extended to "infantry company" in the Roman army through the notion of "enclosed group, retinue;" from assimilated form of com "with" (see co-) + a root akin to hortus "garden," from PIE *ghr-ti-, from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose."
Sense of "accomplice" is first recorded 1952, American English, from meaning "group united in common cause" (1719). In demographics, "group of persons having a common statistical characteristic" (originally being born in the same year), 1944.
early 14c., "confute or frustrate an opponent in argument, end an argument by winning it," from Latin concludere "to shut up, enclose," from assimilated form of com "together" (see con-) + -cludere, combining form of claudere "to shut" (see close (v.)).
Meanings "reach a mental determination, deduce; infer or determine by reason" are from late 14c., a sense also in Latin. General sense of "bring to an end, finish, terminate," and intransitive sense of "come to an end" are from late 14c. Meaning "settle, arrange, determine finally" is from early 15c. Sometimes in Middle English it was used in the etymological sense, "shut in" (late 14c.). Related: Concluded; concluding.
late Old English orceard "fruit garden; piece of ground, usually enclosed, devoted to the culture of fruit-trees," also for meeting, recreation, etc., earlier ortgeard, perhaps reduced from wortgeard, from wort (Old English wyrt "vegetable, plant root") + geard "garden, yard" (also "vegetable garden" until 15c.); see yard (n.1). The first element would have been influenced in Middle English by Latin hortus (in Late Latin ortus) "garden," which also is from the PIE root (*gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose") that yielded yard (n.1). Orchard-house "glass house for the cultivation of fruits too delicate to be grown in open air" is by 1850.