mid-14c., "that which is directly opposite or contrary" (of something), from reverse (adj.) or from Old French revers, reverse "the opposite, reverse," or directly from Latin reversus, past participle of revertere. The meaning "a defeat, a change of fortune for the worse" is from 1520s. In numismatics, "the back or inferior side of a coin, the side without the main device or inscription" is from 1620s. As "the reverse gear of an engine or motor vehicle" by 1900. As a type of sports play (originally rugby) it is recorded from 1921.
1530s, in the Roman historical sense, from French ovation or directly from Latin ovationem (nominative ovatio) "a triumph, rejoicing," noun of action from past-participle stem of ovare "exult, rejoice, triumph," probably imitative of a shout (compare Greek euazein "to utter cries of joy").
In Roman history, a lesser triumph, granted to a commander for achievements (such as defeat of an inconsiderable enemy, accomplished with little bloodshed), insufficient to entitle him to a triumph proper. The figurative sense of "burst of enthusiastic applause from a crowd" is attested by 1831.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to fight, conquer."
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin victor "a conqueror," vincere "to conquer, overcome, defeat;" Lithuanian apveikiu, apveikti "to subdue, overcome;" Old Church Slavonic veku "strength, power, age;" Old Norse vigr "able in battle," Old English wigan "fight;" Welsh gwych "brave, energetic," Old Irish fichim "I fight," second element in Celtic Ordovices "those who fight with hammers."
surname, German, literally "tailor" (equivalent to English Snyder), from schneiden "to cut" (see schnitzel). As a verb meaning "to defeat thoroughly," it appears to be from the game of skat, 1885, where it describes an emphatic way of winning (another way is known as a Schwartz, another German surname). It is attested in German as a skat term by 1860.
In all simple bids, a player proposes to win the game, that is, make at least sixty-one points. With a strong hand he may bid to Schneider his opponents ; that is to prevent them from making thirty points. ["Trumps," "The American Hoyle," New York: 1885]
1520s, "overthrown, routed, defeated, conquered" (now obsolete in this sense), from Latin profligatus "destroyed, ruined, corrupt, abandoned, dissolute," past participle of profligare "to cast down, defeat, ruin," from pro "down, forth" (see pro-) + fligere "to strike" (see afflict).
The main modern meaning "recklessly extravagant" is attested by 1779, via the notion of "ruined in morals, abandoned to vice" (1640s, implied in a use of profligation, an obsolete word attested from mid-15c. but first in a sense of "elimination, banishment"). Related: Profligately. As a noun, "one who has lost all regard for good principles," from 1709.
"online journal," 1998, short for weblog (which is attested from 1993 but in the sense "file containing a detailed record of each request received by a web server"), from (World Wide) Web (n.) + log (n.2). Joe Bloggs (c. 1969) was British slang for "any hypothetical person" (compare U.S. equivalent Joe Blow); earlier blog meant "a servant boy" in one of the college houses (c. 1860, see Partridge, who describes this use as a "perversion of bloke"), and, as a verb, "to defeat" in schoolboy slang. The Blogger online publishing service was launched in 1999.
"a tidal river," 1650s; see salt (n. ) + river. as a proper name, it was used early 19c. with reference to backwoods inhabitants of the U.S., especially those of Kentucky (there is a Salt River in the Bluegrass region of the state; the river is not salty, but salt manufactured from salt licks in the area was shipped down the river). The U.S. political slang phrase to row (someone) up Salt River "send (someone) to political defeat" probably owes its origin to this geographical reference, as the first attested use (1828) is in a Kentucky context. The phrase may also refer to the salt of tears.
"to hit hard, defeat decisively," 1941, British air force slang, of unknown origin, probably related to bombing; possibly echoic. Related: Clobbered; clobbering.
In late 19c. British slang an identical word principally had to do with clothing, as in clobber (n.) "clothes," (v.) "to dress smartly;" clobber up "to patch old clothes for reuse, conceal defects" (1851). The source of these seems to have been 19c. clobber (n.) "kind of coarse dark paste used to cover breaks in leather in old shoes," which seems similar to Gaelic clabar "mud," but OED writes that this is "hardly likely to be the word."
early 15c., trophe, "an overwhelming victory;" 1510s, "a spoil or prize of war," from Old French trophée (15c.) from Latin trophaeum "a sign of victory, monument," originally tropaeum, from Greek tropaion "monument of an enemy's defeat," noun use of neuter of adjective tropaios "of defeat, causing a rout," from trope "a rout," originally "a turning" (of the enemy); from PIE root *trep- "to turn."
In ancient Greece, spoils or arms taken in battle and set up on the field and dedicated to a god. Figurative extension to any token or memorial of victory is first recorded 1560s. As "a symbolic representation of a classical trophy" from 1630s.
Trophy wife "a second, attractive and generally younger, wife of a successful man who acquires her as a status symbol" was a trending phrase in media from 1988 ("Fortune" magazine did a cover story on it in 1989), but is older in isolated instances.
Variations on this theme ['convenience-wife'] include the HOSTESS-WIFE of a businessman who entertains extensively and seeks a higher-level, home-branch version of his secretary; the TROPHY-WIFE — the woman who was hard to get because of birth or wealth or beauty — to be kept on exhibition like a mammoth tusk or prime Picasso ... [Phyllis I. Rosenteur, excerpt from "The Single Women," published in Philadelphia Daily News, Dec. 12, 1961]
The excerpt distinguishes the trophy wife from the "showcase wife," "chosen for her pulchritude and constantly displayed in public places, dripping mink and dangling diamonds," which seems more to suit the later use of trophy wife.
"one who wins a country, subjugates a people, or defeats an adversary," c. 1300, from Anglo-French conquerour, Old French conquereor, from Old French conquerre "conquer, defeat, vanquish," from Vulgar Latin *conquaerere (for Latin conquirere) "to search for, procure by effort, win," from assimilated form of Latin com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + quaerere "to seek, gain" (see query (v.)).
Another early form was conquestor, from the Latin agent noun, conquistor, conquaestor. Fem. form conqueress is attested from c. 1400. William Duke of Normandy was called William the Conqueror from early 12c. in Anglo-Latin (Guillelmus Magus id est conqustor rex Anglorum), by late 14c. in English.