Etymology
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dam (n.2)

"animal mother, female parent of a quadruped," mid-15c., damme, variant of dame "lady, mother" (q.v.), which is attested from early 14c. in this secondary sense. The two forms were somewhat interchangeable in Middle English, but the meanings diverged into separate spellings by 16c., and any use of dam for women since then has been slighting.

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dam (n.1)

"barrier across a stream of water to obstruct its flow and raise its level," c. 1400 (early 13c. in surnames), probably from Old Norse dammr or Middle Dutch dam, both from Proto-Germanic *dammaz (source also of Old Frisian damm, German Damm), which is of unknown origin. Also perhaps in part from or reinforced by Old English verb fordemman "to stop up, block."

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damage (n.)
Origin and meaning of damage

c. 1300, "harm, injury; hurt or loss to person, character, or estate," from Old French damage, domage  "loss caused by injury" (12c., Modern French dommage), from dam "damage," from Latin damnum "loss, hurt, damage" (see damn). In law (as damages) "the value in money of what was lost or withheld, that which is given to repair a cost," from c. 1400. Colloquial sense of "cost, expense" is by 1755. Damage control "action taken to limit the effect of an accident or error" is attested by 1933 in U.S. Navy jargon.

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damage (v.)
Origin and meaning of damage

"cause damage to, hurt, injure, harm," early 14c., from Old French damagier, from damage "loss caused by injury" (see damage (n.)). Related: Damaged; damaging.

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damaging (adj.)

"causing hurt or loss to person, character, or estate," 1849, present-participle adjective from damage (v.). Related: Damagingly (1849). Earlier in the same sense were damageous (late 14c.), damageful (mid-15c.), both now obsolete.

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Damascene 

late 14c. as a noun, "inhabitant of Syria," from Latin Damascenum; 1540s as an adjective, "of or pertaining to Damascus; of or resembling damask fabric," from Latin Damascenus "of Damascus," from Damascus (see Damascus). 

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Damascus 

ancient city in Syria, famous in medieval times for silk and steel, mid-13c., probably via Old French, from Latin Damascus, from Greek Damaskos, from Semitic (compare Hebrew Dammeseq, Arabic Dimashq), from a pre-Semitic name of unknown origin.

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damask (n.)

mid-13c., "Damascus;" late 14c., Damaske, "costly textile fabric woven in elaborate patterns," literally "cloth from Damascus," the Syrian city noted for fabric; see Damascus. From c. 1600 as "a pink color," a reference to the Damask rose, which is native to that region. As an adjective, "woven with figures," 1640s. Related: Damasked.

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dame (n.)

c. 1200, "a mother," also "a woman of rank or high social position; superior of a convent," and an address for a woman of rank or position, used respectfully to other ladies, from Old French dame "lady, mistress, wife," from Late Latin domna, from Latin domina "lady, mistress of the house," from Latin domus "house" (from PIE root *dem- "house, household").

From early 14c. as "a woman" in general, particularly a mature or married woman or the mistress of a household. Used in Middle English with personifications (Study, Avarice, Fortune, Richesse, Nature, Misericordie). In later use the legal title for the wife of a knight or baronet.

Slang sense of "woman" in the broadest sense, without regard to rank or anything else, is attested by 1902 in American English.

We got sunlight on the sand
We got moonlight on the sea
We got mangoes and bananas
You can pick right off the tree
We got volleyball and ping-pong
And a lot of dandy games!
What ain't we got?
We ain't got dames! 
[Richard Rodgers, "There Is Nothin' Like a Dame," 1949]
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damme (interj.)

1610s, coalesced form of damn me, used as an oath.

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