Etymology
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mandate (v.)
Origin and meaning of mandate

1620s, "to command," from mandate (n.). Meaning "to delegate authority, permit to act on behalf of a group" is from 1958; used earlier in the context of the League of Nations, "to authorize a power to control a certain territory for some specified purpose" (1919). Related: Mandated; mandating.

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forbear (v.)

"to abstain," Old English forberan "bear up against, control one's feelings, abstain from, refrain; tolerate, endure" (past tense forbær, past participle forboren), from for- + beran "to bear" (see bear (v.)). Related: Forbearer; forbearing; forbore. Of similar formation are Old High German ferberen, Gothic frabairan "to endure."

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misrule (n.)

late 14c., misreule, "bad government of a state;" see mis- (1) + rule (n.). Meaning "disorderly conduct or living, absence of control or restraint" is from c. 1400, obsolete except in Lord of Misrule, one chosen to preside over Christmas games in a great house (late 15c.). Related: Misruly.

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submit (v.)

late 14c., "to place (oneself) under the control of another, to yield oneself," from Latin submittere "to yield, lower, let down, put under, reduce," from sub "under" (see sub-) + mittere "let go, send" (see mission). Transitive sense of "refer to another for consideration" first recorded 1550s. Related: Submitted; submitting.

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plan (v.)

1728, "make a plan of; put on paper the parts, dimensions, and methods of construction of," from plan (n.). By 1737 as "to scheme, to devise ways and means for (the doing of something)." Related: Planned; planning; plans. Planned economy is attested by 1931. Planned Parenthood (1942) formerly was Birth Control Federation of America.

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meltdown (n.)

by 1922 as "an act or the process of melting metal;" by 1956 in reference to the accidental melting of the core of a nuclear reactor, from the verbal phrase (1630s), from melt (v.) + down (adv.). Metaphoric extension "breakdown in self-control" is attested since 1979.

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decentralization (n.)

"act or principle of removing local or special functions of government from immediate control of central authority," 1839, from de- + centralization. Decentralisation is attested by 1835 in German, in reference to France, but the word does not seem to appear in French before the earliest English dates.

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bridle (v.)

"control, dominate; restrain, guide, govern," c. 1200, a figurative use of Old English bridlian "to fit with a bridle," from bridel (see bridle (n.)). The meaning "throw up the head" (as a horse does when reined in) is from mid-15c. Related: Bridled; bridling.

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administer (v.)
Origin and meaning of administer

late 14c., aministren, later administren, "to manage as a steward, control or regulate on behalf of others," from Old French aministrer "help, aid, be of service to" (12c., Modern French administrer), and directly from Latin administrare "to help, assist; manage, control, guide, superintend; rule, direct," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ministrare "to serve, attend, wait upon," from minister "inferior, servant, priest's assistant" (see minister (n.)).

The -d- was restored 14c.-16c. in French and after 15c. in English. In reference to punishment, justice, etc., "to dispense, bring into operation" (especially as an officer), from mid-15c. In reference to medicines, medical treatment, etc., "to give," from 1540s. Related: Administered; administering.

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seigniorage (n.)

also seignorage, "something claimed by a sovereign or superior as a prerpgative," mid-15c., from Old French seignorage, from seignor (see seignior). In the sense of "lordship, power, control, authority" English had seigniory (Middle English seignorie, c. 1300, from Old French).

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