"to associate with common women," 1590s, from wench (n.). Related: Wenched; wencher; wenching.
early 15c., of a noun, "serving to name or mark out, common (as opposed to proper)," from Latin appellativus, from appellat-, past-participle stem of appellare "address, name, appeal to" (see appeal (v.)). As a noun, attested from 1590s, "common name;" 1630s as "title, descriptive name."
"common yard weed of the genus Plantago," with large, spreading leaves close to the ground and slender spikes, c. 1300, planteine, from Anglo-French plaunteyne, Old French plantain, from Latin plantaginem (nominative plantago), the common weed, from planta "sole of the foot" (see plant (n.)); so called from its flat leaves.
Latin, literally "under the word or heading." A common dictionary reference, usually abbreviated s.v.
"Christian fellowship," 1865, Greek, literally "communion, fellowship," from koinos "common, ordinary" (see coeno-).
1896, marathon race, from story of Greek hero Pheidippides, who in 490 B.C.E. ran to Athens from the Plains of Marathon to tell of the allied Greek victory there over Persian army. The original story (Herodotus) is that he ran from Athens to Sparta to seek aid, which arrived too late to participate in the battle.
It was introduced as an athletic event in the 1896 revival of the Olympic Games, based on a later, less likely story, that Pheidippides ran to Athens from the battlefield with news of the victory. The word quickly was extended to mean "any very long event or activity." The place name is literally "fennel-field." Related: Marathoner (by 1912); Marathonian.
1590s, in reference to the horizontal and vertical lines of soldiers marching in formation, from rank (n.) in the military sense of "number of soldiers drawn up in a line abreast" (1570s) + file (n.1). Thence generalized to "common soldiers" (1796) and "common people, general body" of any group (1860).