Etymology
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carat (n.)

also karat, late 15c., "a measure of the fineness of gold," from Old French carat "measure of the fineness of gold" (14c.), from Italian carato or Medieval Latin carratus, both from Arabic qirat "fruit of the carob tree," also "weight of 4 grains," from Greek keration "carob seed," also the name of a small weight of measure, literally "little horn" diminutive of keras "horn of an animal" (from PIE root *ker- (1) "horn; head").

Carob beans were a standard in the ancient world for weighing small quantities. The Greek measure was the equivalent of the Roman siliqua, which was one-twenty-fourth of a golden solidus of Constantine; hence karat took on a sense of "a proportion of one twenty-fourth, a twenty-fourth part," especially in expressing the fineness of gold when used as jewelry, and thus it became a measure of gold purity (1550s): 18-carat gold is eighteen parts gold, six parts alloy; 14-carat gold is 10/24ths alloy, etc.

As a measure of weight for diamonds or other precious stones, carat is attested from 1570s in English. In U.S., karat is used for "proportion of fine gold in an alloy" and carat for "measure of weight of a precious stone."

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modular (adj.)

1798, as a term in mathematics, "pertaining to modulation," from French modulaire or directly from Modern Latin modularis, from Latin modulus "a small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner" (from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures"). Meaning "composed of interchangeable units" is recorded by 1936.

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countermeasure (n.)

"action taken in response to a danger or threat," 1855, from counter- + measure (n.).

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megavolt (n.)

unit of measure equivalent to one million volts, 1868, from mega- "one million" + volt.

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meter (v.)

"to measure by means of a meter," 1864 (in reference to gas), from meter (n.3). Meaning "install parking meters" is from 1957. In 15c.-16c. it meant "to compose verse, write in metrical verse" (from meter (n.1)), also "to measure." Related: Metered; metering.

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modus (n.)

"way in which anything is done," 1640s, from Latin modus (plural modi) "measure, extent, quantity; proper measure, rhythm, song; a way, manner, fashion, style," from PIE root *med- "take appropriate measures." Especially in modus operandi and modus vivendi.

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moderate (adj.)

"not excessive in amount, intensity, quality, etc.," late 14c., originally of weather and other physical conditions, from Latin moderatus "within bounds, observing moderation;" figuratively "modest, restrained," past participle of moderari "to regulate, mitigate, restrain, temper, set a measure, keep (something) within measure," from PIE *med-es-, from root *med- "take appropriate measures." The notion is "keeping within due measure." In English, of persons from early 15c., of opinions from 1640s, of prices from 1670s. Related: Moderateness.

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sanctimonious (adj.)

c. 1600 (in "Measure for Measure," with the disparaging sense "making a show of sanctity, affecting an appearance of holiness"), from sanctimony + -ous. The un-ironic, literal sense is about as old in English and was used occasionally from c. 1600 to c. 1800. Related: Sanctimoniously; sanctimoniousness.

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pedometer (n.)

instrument for measuring distances covered by a walker, 1723, from French pédomètre, a hybrid coined from Latin pedis (genitive of pes "foot," from PIE root *ped- "foot") + -meter, from Greek metron "a measure" (from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure"). At first Englished as waywiser. Related: Pedometric.

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optometrist (n.)

"one whose profession is to measure the range and power of vision," 1903; see optometry + -ist.

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