Etymology
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trillion 
1680s, from French trillion, from Italian trilione; see tri- + million. In the U.S., the fourth power of a thousand (one thousand billion, 1 followed by 12 zeroes); in Great Britain, the third power of a million (one million billion, 1 followed by 18 zeroes), which is the original sense. Compare billion.
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defeatist 
1918, adjective and noun, in reference to pacifists and political opposition in Britain, from French défaitiste, which was used there in reference to the Russians who sought to end their war with Germany; see defeat (n.) + -ist. Their opposition, in the original Russian context, were called defensists.
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queueing (n.)

"act or fact of standing in line," 1918, verbal noun from queue (v.).

"Queueing" had really become an equivalent for sport with some working-class women. It afforded an occasion and an opportunity for gossip. ["The War of Food in Britain," in The Congregationalist and Advance, April 25, 1918]
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pence (n.)

late 14c., a contraction of penies, collective plural of penny. Spelling with -ce reflects the voiceless pronunciation (compare dice (n.), deuce, hence). After the introduction of decimal currency in Britain in 1971, it began to be used in singular (one pence).

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Jute 
Old English Eotas, Iutas (plural), one of the ancient Germanic inhabitants of Jutland, the peninsula between modern Germany and Denmark, who, with the Angles and Saxons invaded Britain in 5c.. Traditionally they were said to have settled in Kent and Hampshire. The name is related to Old Norse Iotar. Related: Jutish (1775).
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Proterosaurus (n.)

also Protorosaurus, extinct genus of lizard-like reptiles first found fossilized in rocks from the late Permian in Germany and Britain, 1872, from Latinized form of Greek proteros "former, earlier" (see protero-) + sauros "lizard" (see -saurus). So called because it was long the earliest known fossil reptile.

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pendragon (n.)

"Welsh warlord" (mainly known now via Arthurian romances as the title of Uther Pendragon), late 15c., title of a chief leader in war of ancient Britain or Wales, who were invested with dictatorial powers in times of great danger, from pen "head" (see pen-) + dragon, which figured on the standard of a cohort.

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public school (n.)

1570s, originally, in Britain, "a grammar school endowed for the benefit of the public," but most have evolved into boarding-schools for the well-to-do. From public (adj.) + school (n.1). The main modern meaning in U.S., "school (usually free) provided at public expense and run by local authorities," is attested from 1640s. 

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Brutus 
Roman surname of the Junian gens. Its association with betrayal traces to Marcus Junius Brutus (c. 85 B.C.E.-42 B.C.E.), Roman statesman and general and conspirator against Caesar. The Brutus (Anglicized as Brute) who was the mythological eponymous founder of Britain in medieval legend was said to be a descendant of Aeneas the Trojan.
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cairn (n.)
"large, conical heap of stone," especially of the type common in Scotland and Wales and also found elsewhere in Britain, 1530s, from Scottish carne, akin to Gaelic carn "heap of stones, rocky hill" and Gaulish karnon "horn," perhaps from PIE *ker-n- "highest part of the body, horn," thus "tip, peak" (see horn (n.)).
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