Originally of rubies, garnets, and other red jewels. In English the word was used of red, eruptive subcutaneous inflammations and tumors from late 14c. Also "red spot on the nose or face caused by intemperance" (1680s).
late 14c., "expression of (popular) discontent or complaint by grumbling," from Old French murmure "murmur, sound of human voices; trouble, argument" (12c.), noun of action from murmurer "to murmur," from Latin murmurare "to murmur, mutter," from murmur (n.) "a hum, muttering, rushing," probably from a PIE reduplicative base *mor-mor, of imitative origin (source also of Sanskrit murmurah "crackling fire," Greek mormyrein "to roar, boil," Lithuanian murmlenti "to murmur").
Meaning "a low sound continuously repeated" (of bees, streams, etc.) is by c. 1400. That of "softly spoken words" is from 1670s. Medical sense of "sound heard in auscultation" is by 1824.
Intransitive sense "come into being" is from c. 1200; that of "beget or bear offspring" is from mid-13c. Of livestock, etc., "procure by the mating of parents and rear for use," mid-14c. Sense of "grow up, be reared" (in a clan, etc.) is late 14c.; meaning "form by education" is from mid-15c. Related: Bred; breeding.
The etymological sense is "piece of meat suitable for roasting." "The specific sense 'boar's flesh' is exclusively of English development, and characteristic of English habits" [OED]. Meaning "well-developed muscles, muscular strength" is from 1865.
c. 1200, scalden, "to be very hot;" also "to affect (someone) painfully by short exposure to hot liquid or steam," from Old North French escalder "to scald, to scorch" (Old French eschalder "heat, boil up, bubble," Modern French échauder), from Late Latin excaldare "bathe in hot water" (source also of Spanish escaldar, Italian scaldare "heat with hot water"), from Latin ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + calidus "hot" (from PIE root *kele- (1) "warm"). Related: Scalded; scalding.
"[T]he word entered at an early date into the Scandinavian languages" [OED]. The noun is c. 1600, from the verb, "burn or injury to the skin by hot liquid or steam."
Intransitive use from 1590s. Meaning "to boil slowly, to cook meat by simmering it in liquid" is attested from early 15c. The meaning "to be left to the consequences of one's actions" is from 1650s, especially in figurative expression to stew in one's own juices. Related: Stewed; stewing. Slang stewed "drunk" first attested 1737.
"point or minute spot on a surface," Old English dott, once, "speck, head of a boil," perhaps related to Norwegian dot "lump, small knot," Dutch dot "knot, small bunch, wisp," Old High German tutta "nipple;" a word of uncertain etymology.
Known from a single source c. 1000; the word reappeared with modern meaning "mark" c. 1530; not common until 18c. Perhaps this is a different word imitative of "the mark of a mere touch with the pen" (Wedgwood). In music, the meaning "point indicating a note is to be lengthened by half" is by 1806. Morse telegraph sense is from 1838. On the dot "punctual" is 1909, in reference to a clock dial face. Dot-matrix in printing and screen display is attested by 1975.
"spider," Middle English atter-coppe, from Old English atorcoppe "spider," literally "poison-head," from ator "poison, venom" (Middle English atter), from Proto-Germanic *aitra- "poisonous ulcer" (source also of Old Norse eitr, Old High German eitar "poison;" German eiter "pus," Old High German eiz "abscess, boil;" Old English atorcræft "art of poisoning") + copp "top, summit, round head," probably also "spider" (compare cobweb and Dutch spinne-cop "spider").
Amptes & attircoppes & suche oþer þat ben euere bisy ben maide to schewe man ensaumple of stodye & labour. [Elucidarium of Honorius of Autun (Wycliffite version) c. 1400]
Archaic and provincial; used 20c. by Tolkien. It also lingered in Northern England dialect in the sense "peevish, ill-natured person" (c. 1500).
late 14c., bocchen "to repair," later, "repair clumsily, to spoil by unskillful work" (1520s); of unknown origin. Middle English Compendium says probably the same as bocchen "to swell up or fester; to bulge or project" (though this is only from early 15c. and OED denies a connection) which is from Old North French boche, Old French boce, a common Romanic word of uncertain origin. Related: Botched; botching.
As a noun, "a bungled or ill-finished part," from c. 1600, perhaps from the verb, but compare Middle English bocche "a boil, a pathological swelling, a tumor" (late 14c.), used especially of glandular swellings from the plague, also figuratively "a corrupt person; a rotten condition" (late 14c.), "a hump on a cripple" (early 14c.), which probably is from Old North French boche, Old French boce, a common Romanic word of uncertain origin.