Etymology
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bioethics (n.)

also bio-ethics, coined 1970 by U.S. biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter II, who defined it as "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival." From bio- + ethics.

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polygenesis (n.)

"plurality of origins," in biology, "generation or origination from several separate and often independent germs; as a doctrine, equivalent to special creation; originally and often specifically in reference to the view that the human race consists of several distinct species, 1858, from poly- + -genesis "birth, origin, creation." Also see polygeny.

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phylogeny (n.)

"the branch of biology which attempts to deduce the genesis and evolution of a phylum," 1869, from German Phylogenie, coined 1866 by German biologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel from Greek phylon "race" (from PIE root *bheue- "to be, exist, grow") + -geneia "origin" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). Related: Phylogenic.

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devolution (n.)

1540s, in reference to property, qualities, etc., "descent by natural or due succession," agent noun from devolve. Meaning "act of transferring or handing over" is from 1620s. Etymological sense "act of rolling down" (1620s) was rare in English and is archaic or obsolete. In biology, as "degeneration, the opposite of evolution," it is attested by 1882.

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mutualism (n.)

1845, in reference to the doctrine of French anarchist/socialist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) that individual and collective well-being is attainable only by mutual dependence, from French mutuellisme. In biology, "a symbiosis in which two organisms living together mutually and permanently help and support one another," from 1876, from mutual + -ism.

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hibernacle (n.)
"winter residence, that which serves for shelter in winter," 1708, from Latin hibernacula (plural) "winter quarters, tents for winter," which is related to hibernare "to winter, occupy winter quarters" (see hibernation) with instrumentive suffix -culum. The Latin word was used in English in biology from 1690s. Related: Hibernacular.
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cross-over (n.)

also crossover, 1795, a term in calico-printing, "superimposed color in the form of stripes or crossbars," from the verbal phrase; see cross (v.) + over (adv.). From 1884 in railroading; from 1912 in biology. As a general adjective from 1893; specifically of musicians and genres from 1971.

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capitulum (n.)

used from 18c. in various senses in English in anatomy and biology, from Latin capitulum, literally "little head," diminutive of caput "head," also "leader, guide, chief person; summit; capital city; origin, source, spring," figuratively "life, physical life;" in writing "a division, paragraph;" of money, "the principal sum" (from PIE root *kaput- "head").

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cline (n.)

1938, in biology, "a graded series of differences within a species," a back-formation from incline or from a Latinized form of Greek klinein "to slope, to lean" (from PIE root *klei- "to lean"). Earlier, but now obsolete, was a verb cline, from Middle English clinen "to bend, bow," from Old French cliner, from Latin clinare.

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monotype (n.)

1881 in biology, "the single or sole type of a species in its genus, a genus in its family, etc.;" 1882 in printers' arts, "a print from a picture painted on a metal plate" (only one proof can be made, as the picture is transferred to the paper); 1893 as a brand name of typesetting machine; see mono- + type. Related: Monotypic (1878 in the biological sense)

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