Etymology
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insult (v.)

1560s, "triumph over in an arrogant way" (obsolete), from French insulter "to wrong; reproach; triumph arrogantly over," earlier "to leap upon" (14c.) and directly from Latin insultare "to assail, to make a sudden leap upon," which was used by the time of Cicero in sense of "to insult, scoff at, revile," frequentative of insilire "leap at or upon," from in- "on, at" (from PIE root *en "in") + salire "to leap" (see salient (adj.)).

Sense of "verbally abuse, affront, assail with disrespect, offer an indignity to" is from 1610s. Related: Insulted; insulting.

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antipathy (n.)

c. 1600, "natural aversion, hostile feeling toward," from Latin antipathia, from Greek antipatheia, abstract noun from antipathēs "opposed in feeling, having opposite feeling; in return for suffering;" also "felt mutually," from anti "opposite, against" (see anti-) + pathein "to suffer, feel" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer").

An abuse has crept in upon the employment of the word Antipathy. ... Strictly it does not mean hate,—not the feelings of one man set against the person of another,—but that, in two natures, there is an opposition of feeling. With respect to the same object they feel oppositely. [Janus, or The Edinburgh Literary Almanack, 1826]
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runt (n.)

c. 1500, "old or decayed tree stump" (Douglas), a provincial word of unknown origin. The meaning was extended to "small ox or cow," especially of the breeds characteristic of Wales and the Scottish Highlands (1540s, if indeed this is the same word), and by 1610s generally to undersized animals and ignorant people.

The slang sense of "person of low but thick-set build; a stocky, stunted person," a term of abuse, is by 1700. The  sense of "smallest of a litter" (especially of pigs) is attested from 1841 as a Shropshire word, though it seems to have become general in American English. Some see a connection of runt, at least in the "animal" sense, to Middle Dutch runt "ox," but OED thinks this unlikely, and pronounces the word "of obscure origin." Related: Runty (1807); runtish (1640s).

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lackey (n.)

1520s, "footman, running footman, valet," from French laquais "foot soldier, footman, servant" (15c.), a word of unknown origin; perhaps from Old Provençal lacai, from lecai "glutton, covetous," from lecar "to lick." The alternative etymology is that it comes via Old French laquay, from Catalan alacay, from Arabic al-qadi "the judge." Yet another guess traces it through Spanish lacayo, from Italian lacchè, from Modern Greek oulakes, from Turkish ulak "runner, courier." This suits the original sense better, but OED says Italian lacchè is from French. Sense of "servile follower" appeared 1580s. As a political term of abuse it dates from 1939 in communist jargon.

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nig-nog (n.)

"foolish person," 1953, OED suggests from earlier cant slang nigmenog "a very silly fellow" (1700). Compare Australian and dialectal ning-nong "fool" (1832). The word turns up in various apparently unrelated contexts in late 19c.-early 20c. Wright's "Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial Words" (1886) has nig-nog as a verb for "to fuck." It also was the name of a fictitious patent medicine that "cures all nervous ailments," etc. in a humor story by Edgar Wallace originally published in 1923. As a term of abuse for a black person (by 1959), a shortened and reduplicated form of nigger.

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Kaffir (n.)
1790, "infidel," earlier and also caffre (1670s), from Arabic kafir "unbeliever, infidel, impious wretch," with a literal sense of "one who does not admit (the blessings of God)," from kafara "to cover up, conceal, deny, blot out."

Technically, "a non-Muslim," but in Ottoman times it came to be used there almost exclusively as the disparaging word for "Christian." It also was used by Muslims in East Africa of the pagan black Africans; English missionaries then picked it up as an equivalent of "heathen" to refer to Bantus in South Africa (1731), from which use in English it came generally to mean "South African black" regardless of ethnicity, and to be a term of abuse at least since 1934.
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glutton (n.)

"one who eats and drinks to excess," early 13c., from Old French gloton "glutton;" also "scoundrel," a general term of abuse (Modern French glouton), from Latin gluttonem (nominative glutto) "overeater," which is related to gluttire "to swallow," gula "throat" (see gullet). General sense in reference to one who indulges in anything to excess is from 1704. Glutton for punishment is from pugilism; the phrase is from 1854, but the idea is older:

Thus, Theocritus, in his Milling-match, calls Amycus "a glutton," which is well known to be the classical phrase at Moulsey-Hurst, for one who, like Amycus, takes a deal of punishment before he is satisfied. [Tom Moore, "Tom Crib's Memorial to Congress," 1819]
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opportunist (n.)

1881, from opportunism (q.v.) + -ist. A word in Italian politics, later in France opportuniste was applied derisively to the moderate Léon Gambetta (1876), leader of the party between the monarchists and the extreme republicans. In English the word was used generally of anyone whose policy or tendency is to  seek to profit from the prevailing circumstances or take advantage of opportunities as they occur.

Once seated in the legislature Gambetta argued that all republicans—the old guard, young republicans, and even recent converts—could and should cooperate. He preached compromise and accommodation—Opportunism—in order to achieve the politically possible. He spoke against violent revolution and sought to promote peaceful reforms using legal methods, a stance that pitted him directly against the militant demagogue Henri Rochefort, who latched onto the term Opportunism as a term of abuse. [Robert Lynn Fuller, "The Origins of the French Nationalist Movement, 1886-1914"]
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dight (v.)

Middle English dighten, "to adorn," from Old English dihtan "dictate, appoint, ordain; guide; compose, set in order," an early borrowing from Latin dictare "to dictate" (see dictate (v.)).

The Latin word was borrowed earlier into continental Germanic, where it became Old High German dihton "to write compose," German dichten "to write poetry." It was so nativized in late Old English that it was used to gloss Latin dictator. In Middle English, dight exploded to a vast array of meanings (including "to rule," "to handle," "to abuse," "to have sex with," "to kill," "to clothe," "to make ready," "to repair") till it was one of the most-used verbs in the language, but all its senses have faded into obscurity or survive only in dialectal or poetic use.

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sow (n.)
Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su- (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German su, German Sau, Dutch zeug, Old Norse syr), from PIE root *su- (source also of Sanskrit sukarah "wild boar, swine;" Avestan hu "wild boar;" Greek hys "swine;" Latin sus "swine," swinus "pertaining to swine;" Old Church Slavonic svinija "swine;" Lettish sivens "young pig;" Welsh hucc, Irish suig "swine; Old Irish socc "snout, plowshare"), possibly imitative of pig noise, a notion reinforced by the fact that Sanskrit sukharah means "maker of (the sound) 'su.' " Related to swine. As a term of abuse for a woman, attested from c. 1500. Sow-bug "hog louse" is from 1750.
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