Etymology
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chapel (n.)

early 13c., "subordinate place of worship added to or forming part of a large church or cathedral, separately dedicated and devoted to special services," from Old French chapele (12c., Modern French chapelle), from Medieval Latin capella, cappella "chapel, sanctuary for relics," literally "little cape," diminutive of Late Latin cappa "cape" (see cap (n.)).

By tradition, the name is originally in reference to the sanctuary in France in which the miraculous cape of St. Martin of Tours, patron saint of France, was preserved. (While serving Rome as a soldier deployed in Gaul, Martin cut his military coat in half to share it with a ragged beggar. That night, Martin dreamed Christ wearing the half-cloak; the half Martin kept was the relic.) The other theory is that it comes from Medieval Latin capella in a literal sense of "canopy, hood" and is a reference to the "covering" of the altar when Mass is said.

The word spread to most European languages (German Kapelle, Italian cappella, etc.). In English from 17c. it was used also of places of worship other than those of the established church.

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Amazon (n.)

late 14c., "one of a race of female warriors in Scythia," via Old French (13c.) or Latin, from Greek Amazon (mostly in plural Amazones), probably from an unknown non-Indo-European word, or possibly from an Iranian compound *ha-maz-an- "(one) fighting together" [Watkins]. But in folk etymology it has been long derived from a- "without" + mazos, variant of mastos "breast;" hence the story that the Amazons cut or burned off one breast so they could draw bowstrings more efficiently.

It was also used generally in early Modern English of female warriors; strong, tall, or masculine women; and the queen in chess.

The river in South America (originally called by the Spanish Rio Santa Maria de la Mar Dulce) was rechristened with this name by Francisco de Orellana, 1541, after an encounter with female warriors of the Tapuyas (or, as some say, beardless, long-haired male tribesmen). Others hold that the river name is a corruption of a native word in Tupi or Guarani meaning "wave."

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loose (adj.)

early 13c., lous, loos, lowse, "not securely fixed;" c. 1300, "unbound, not confined," from Old Norse lauss "loose, free, unencumbered; vacant; dissolute," cognate with Old English leas "devoid of, false, feigned, incorrect" (source of -less) from Proto-Germanic *lausaz (source also of Danish løs "loose, untied," Swedish lös "loose, movable, detached," Middle Dutch, German los "loose, free," Gothic laus "empty, vain"), from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart."

Meaning "not clinging, slack" (of clothes, etc.) is from mid-15c. Meaning "not bundled" is from late 15c. Sense of "unchaste, immoral" ("lax in conduct, free from moral restraint") is recorded from late 15c. Meaning "at liberty, free from obligation" is 1550s. Sense of "rambling, disconnected" is from 1680s. As an adverb, "loosely," from 1590s. A loose end was an extremity of string, etc., left hanging; hence something unfinished, undecided, unguarded (1540s); to be at loose ends is from 1807. Phrase on the loose "free, unrestrained" is from 1749 (upon the loose). Colloquial hang loose is from 1968.

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shield (n.)

Middle English sheld, "frame or rounded plate of wood, metal, etc., carried by an warrior on the arm or in the hand as defense," from Old English scield, scild "shield; protector, defender," originally "board," from Proto-Germanic *skelduz (source also of Old Norse skjöldr, Old Saxon skild, Middle Dutch scilt, Dutch schild, German Schild, Gothic skildus), from *skel- "divide, split, separate," from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut."

The IE sense evolution of that proposal is uncertain; the ancient notion is perhaps a flat piece of wood made by splitting a log, but Boutkan writes, "it seems more probable to me that the word designated a means of protection, i.e. a separation between the fighter and the enemy."

Shield usually meant a larger defensive device, covering much of the body, as opposed to a buckler. Shield volcano (1911) translates German Schildvulkan (1910). The plate tectonics sense of shield as "large, stable mass of Achaean rock forming a continental nucleus" is by 1906, translating Suess (1888).

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brotherhood (n.)

14c., "fraternal relation, relationship between sons of the same father or mother," from brother + -hood; earlier was brotherhede (c. 1300), with ending as in maidenhead; and Old English had broþerrede, with ending as in kindred. The modern form of the word prevailed from 15c.

Originally "relationship of a brother," also "friendly companionship." The concrete sense of "an association of men for any purpose, a fraternity" is from mid-14c. in the Middle English word (later also "labor union," 1880s). The meaning "a class of individuals of the same kind" is from 1728. The meaning "community feeling uniting all humankind" is from 1784. Old English also had broðorscipe "brothership," broðorsibb "kinship of brothers."

What edge of subtlety canst thou suppose
Keen enough, wise and skilful as thou art,
To cut the link of brotherhood, by which
One common Maker bound me to the kind?
[Cowper, from "The Task," 1785]

***

Oh, the Protestants hate the Catholics,
And the Catholics hate the Protestants,
And the Hindus hate the Muslims,
And everybody hates the Jews.
[Tom Lehrer, "National Brotherhood Week" lyrics, 1965]
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London 

chief city and capital of England, Latin Londinium (Tacitus, c. 115), according to the "Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names," "unexplained." It is often said to be "place belonging to a man named *Londinos," a supposed Celtic personal name meaning "the wild one," "but this etymology is rejected in an emphatic footnote in Jackson 1953 (p. 308), and we have as yet nothing to put in its place" [Margaret Gelling, "Signposts to the Past: Place-Names and the History of England," Chichester, 1978]. Its mythical history is told in Layamon's "Brut" (c. 1200).

In late Old English often with -burg, -wic, or -ceaster. As an adjective, Old English had Lundenisc, but this seems to have fallen from use, and modern Londonish (1838) probably is a re-coinage. Also Londony (1884); Londonesque (1852); Londinensian (George Meredith); Londonian (1824, marked "rare" in OED).

London Bridge the children's singing game is attested from 1827. London broil "large flank steak broiled then cut in thin slices" attested 1930s, American English; London fog first attested 1785.

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caesarian (n.)

"delivery of a child by cutting through the abdomen of the mother," 1923, shortening of Caesarian section (1610s); caesar as "baby delivered by caesarian section is from 1530s. Section (n.) here has the literal Latin sense of "act or action of cutting," which is attested from 1550s in English but is rare outside of medicine.

Supposedly from Caius Julius Caesar, who was said to have been delivered surgically. Thus also legend traces his cognomen to Latin caesus, past participle of caedere "to cut" (see -cide). But if this is the etymology of the name, it was likely an ancestor who was so born (Caesar's mother lived to see his triumphs and such operations would have been fatal to the woman in ancient times). Rather, caesar here may come directly from caesus.

The operation was prescribed in Rome for cases of dead mothers; the first recorded instance of it being performed on a living woman is c. 1500, but as late as the early 19c., before antiseptics and blood transfusions, it had a 50% mortality rate.

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escutcheon (n.)

"shield on which a coat of arms is depicted," late 15c., from Old North French escuchon, variant of Old French escusson "half-crown (coin); coat of arms, heraldic escutcheon," from Vulgar Latin *scutionem, from Latin scutum "shield," from PIE *skoito- "piece of wood, sheath, shield" (source also of Old Irish sciath, Welsh ysgwyd, Breton scoed "shield;" Old Prussian staytan "shield;" Russian ščit "shield"), probably a noun derivative of a variant of PIE root *skei- "to cut, split," on the notion of "board."

Escutcheon of pretense, in her., a small escutcheon charged upon the main escutcheon, indicating the wearer's pretensions to some distinction, or to an estate, armorial bearings, etc., which are not his by strict right of descent. It is especially used to denote the marriage of the bearer to an heiress whose arms it bears. Also called inescutcheon. [Century Dictionary]
Clev. Without doubt: he is a Knight?
Jord. Yes Sir.
Clev. He is a Fool too?
Jord. A little shallow[,] my Brother writes me word, but that is a blot in many a Knights Escutcheon.
[Edward Ravenscroft, "Mamamouchi, or the Citizen Turn'd Gentleman," 1675]
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honorable (adj.)

mid-14c. (mid-13c. as a surname, Walter le Onorable, also known as Walter Honurable), "worthy of respect or reverence, respectable," also "signifying or rendering distinction or respect; ensuring good repute or honor," from Old French onorable, honorable "respectable, respectful, civil, courteous," from Latin honorabilis "that procures honor, estimable, honorable," from honorare "to honor," from honor (see honor (n.)). Meaning "honest, sincere, in good faith" is from 1540s; sense of "acting justly" is from c. 1600.

"Now, George, you must divide the cake honorably with your brother Charlie."—George: "What is 'honorably,' mother?" "It means that you must give him the largest piece."—George: "Then, mother, I should rather Charlie would cut it." ["Smart Sayings of Bright Children," collected by Howard Paul, 1886]

As an epithet before the name of a peer, Church or civil official, guild officer, etc., from c.1400. As a noun, "honorable person," late 14c. Alternative adjective honorous (Old French honoros) seems not to have survived Middle English. Related: Honorably; honorableness.

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shelf (n.1)

late 14c., "thin slab or plank fixed horizontally to a wall or frame and used for supporting small objects; a transverse board in a case or cabinet," perhaps from Middle Low German schelf "shelf, set of shelves," or perhaps from Old English cognate scylfe, which could have meant "shelf, ledge, floor" (the sense is uncertain), and scylf "peak, pinnacle," from Proto-Germanic *skelf- "split," possibly from the notion of a split piece of wood (compare Old Norse skjölf "bench"), from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut."

From mid-15c. as "grassy bank." The meaning "ledge of rock" (as in later continental shelf) is from 1809, perhaps from or influenced by shelf (n.2).

By 1920s in reference to the display of goods in a shop, hence shelf life "time goods may be kept or stored unsold before they begin to spoil" (1927). The figurative phrase on the shelf "out of the way, inactive" is attested from 1570s (also used 19c. of unmarried women with no prospects). Off the shelf "ready-made, from a supply of ready-made goods" is from 1936. Related: Shelves.

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