Etymology
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from (prep., adv.)

Old English fram, preposition denoting departure or movement away in time or space, from Proto-Germanic *fra "forward, away from" (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German, Gothic fram "from, away," Old Norse fra "from," fram "forward"), from PIE *pro-mo-, suffixed form of *pro (see pro-), extended form of root *per- (1) "forward." The Germanic sense of "moving away" apparently evolved from the notion of "forward motion." It is related to Old English fram "forward; bold; strong," and fremian "promote, accomplish" (see frame (v.)).

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disposition (n.)

late 14c., disposicioun, "ordering, management, a setting in order, arrangement," also "tendency of mind, aptitude, inclination," from Old French disposicion (12c.) "arrangement, order; mood, state of mind" and directly from Latin dispositionem (nominative dispositio) "arrangement, management," noun of action from past-participle stem of disponere "to put in order, arrange" (see dispose).

Meaning "frame of mind, attitude, inclination; temperament, natural tendency or constitution of the mind" (late 14c.) are from astrological use of the word for "position of a planet as a determining influence" (late 14c.). Related: Dispositional.

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forge (v.1)

early 14c., "to counterfeit" (a letter, document, etc.), from Old French forgier "to forge, work (metal); shape, fashion; build, construct; falsify" (12c., Modern French forger), from Latin fabricari "to frame, construct, build," from fabrica "workshop" (see forge (n.)). Meaning "to counterfeit" (a letter, document, or other writing) is from early 14c.; literal meaning "to form (something) by heating in a forge and hammering" is from late 14c. in English, also used in Middle English of the minting of coins, so that it once meant "issue good money" but came to mean "issue spurious (paper) money." Related: Forged; forging.

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timber (n.)

Old English timber "building, structure," in late Old English "building material, trees suitable for building," and "trees or woods in general," from Proto-Germanic *tem(b)ra- (source also of Old Saxon timbar "a building, room," Old Frisian timber "wood, building," Old High German zimbar "timber, wooden dwelling, room," Old Norse timbr "timber," German Zimmer "room"), from PIE *deme- "to build," possibly a form of the root *dem- meaning "house, household" (source of Greek domos, Latin domus).

The related Old English verb timbran, timbrian was the chief word for "to build" (compare Dutch timmeren, German zimmern). As a call of warning when a cut tree is about to fall, it is attested from 1912 in Canadian English. Timbers in the nautical slang sense (see shiver (v.2)) is from the specialized meaning "pieces of wood composing the frames of a ship's hull" (1748).

The timber-wolf (1846) of the U.S. West is the gray wolf, not confined to forests but so-called to distinguish it from the prairie-wolf (coyote).

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rack (n.1)

c. 1300, "grating or open frame with bars or pegs upon which things are hung or placed," especially for kitchen use, possibly from Middle Dutch rec "framework," literally "something stretched out, related to recken (modern rekken) "stretch out," cognate with Old English reccan "to stretch out," from Proto-Germanic *rak- (source also of Old Saxon rekkian, Old Frisian reza, Old Norse rekja, Old High German recchen, German recken, Gothic uf-rakjan "to stretch out"), from PIE root *reg- "to move in a straight line."

Or it might have developed from the Old English verb. The sense of "frame on which clothes or skins are stretched to dry" is by early 14c. The sense of "framework above a manger for holding hay or other fodder for livestock" is from mid-14c. As the name of a type of instrument of torture by early 15c., perhaps from German rackbank, originally an implement for stretching leather, etc. Sense of "punishment by the rack" is by 1580s.

Mechanical meaning "metal bar with teeth on one edge" is from 1797 (see pinion). Meaning "set of antlers" is first attested 1945, American English; hence slang sense of "a woman's breasts" (especially if large), by 1991. Meaning "framework for displaying clothes" is from 1948; hence off the rack (1951) of clothing, as opposed to tailored.

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board (v.)

various senses from board (n.1) and board (n.2): "come alongside" (a ship), mid-15c. (from n.2); "put boards on, frame with boards," late 14c. (from n.1); "close with boards" (1885, typically with up, from n.1). The meaning "get onto" a ship (1590s, from n.2), was transferred mid-19c. to stages, railway cars, and later aircraft, etc.

The meaning "to be supplied with food and lodging" (from n.1 in transferred sense) is from 1550s. The transitive meaning "provide with daily meals and lodging" is from 1590s. Related: Boarded; boarding.

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sill (n.)

Middle English sille, from Old English syll "beam, threshold, large timber serving as a foundation of a wall," from Proto-Germanic *suljo (source also of Old Norse svill, Swedish syll, Danish syld "framework of a building," Middle Low German sull, Old High German swelli, German Schwelle "sill"), perhaps from PIE root *swel- (3) "post, board" (source also of Greek selma "beam").

The meaning "lower horizontal part of a window opening" is recorded from early 15c.; extended to the lower part of the case or frame of a door by 1590s. Used in geology in reference to certain types of rock beds or layers from 1794.

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hobbyhorse (n.)

also hobby-horse, 1550s, "mock horse used in the morris-dance;" 1580s, "child's toy riding horse," from hobby (n.) + horse (n.). Transferred sense of "favorite pastime or avocation" first recorded 1670s (shortened to hobby by 1816). The connecting notion being "activity that doesn't go anywhere."

The hobbyhorse originally was a "Tourney Horse," a wooden or basketwork frame worn around the waist and held on with shoulder straps, with a fake tail and horse head attached, so the wearer appears to be riding a horse. These were part of church and civic celebrations at Midsummer and New Year's throughout England.

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mat (n.2)

"sheet of backing material," 1845, from French mat "dull surface or finish" (15c.), noun use of Old French mat (adj.) "dull, beaten down," for which see mat (adj.). The word has been confused with mat (n.1), especially as the latter was used late 19c. for "piece of thick paper or other material placed for ornament or protection immediately under the glass of a picture-frame, with the central part cut out, for the proper display of the picture." As a verb, "to mount (a print) on a cardboard backing," by 1965. Related: Matted; matting.

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target (n.)

c. 1300, "shield," diminutive of late Old English targe, from Old French targe "light shield" (12c.), from Frankish *targa "shield," from Proto-Germanic *targ- (source also of Old High German zarga "edging, border," German zarge "border, edge, frame," Old English targe, Old Norse targa "shield, buckler"), perhaps originally "edge of a shield." Meaning "round object to be aimed at in shooting" first recorded 1757, originally in archery, perhaps suggested by the concentric circles in both. Target-practice is from 1801. Target audience is by 1951; early reference is to Cold War psychological warfare.

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