Etymology
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den (n.2)

in good den, found in the early dramatists, a contraction of good e'en "good evening;" the phrase was short for God give you good den.

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please (v.)

c. 1300, plesen, "to please or satisfy (a deity), propitiate, appease," from Old French plaisir "to please, give pleasure to, satisfy" (11c., Modern French plaire, the form of which is perhaps due to analogy of faire), from Latin placere "to be acceptable, be liked, be approved," related to placare "to soothe, quiet" (source of Spanish placer, Italian piacere), from PIE *pl(e)hk- "to agree, be pleasant," with cognates in Tocharian plak- "to agree," plaki "permission."

By mid-14c. as "satisfy (a person), be agreeable to, be satisfactory or acceptable; to be satisfied." Meaning "to delight, attract (someone), amuse, entertain, excite agreeable sensations in" in English is from late 14c. Inverted use for "to be pleased, be satisfied" parallels the evolution of like (v.).

Impersonal constructions with it, followed by an object and originally dative are common from mid-14c. Intransitive sense of "to like, choose, think fit" (do as you please) is recorded from c. 1500; imperative use (please do this), is recorded from 1620s (as please to), was probably a shortening of if it please (you) (late 14c.).

This impersonal construction with the indirect object of the person has given way in more familiar use to a personal construction, the original dative you, in if you please, for example, being now taken as the subject. The word in this sense was formerly common in polite request, may it please you, or if it please you, or, elliptically, please you : a mode of speech still common in addressing a judge or persons of rank or position : as, may it please the court ; if it please your honor ; please your worship ; etc. [Century Dictionary] 

Verbs for "please" supply the stereotype polite word ("Please come in," short for may it please you to ...) in many languages (French, Italian), "But more widespread is the use of the first singular of a verb for 'ask, request' " [Buck, who cites German bitte, Polish proszę, etc.]. Spanish favor is short for hace el favor "do the favor." Danish has in this sense vær saa god, literally "be so good."

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aplenty (adj.)

also a-plenty, "in abundance," by 1829, colloquial when used after the noun, from a- (1) + plenty (n.).

Two square feet, or four at most, in one corner of the frame, will give you mustard and cress a plenty for salads, if you take care to make repeated sowings in proper time. [William Cobbett, "The English Gardener," 1829]

But perhaps older, depending how some uses of aplenty or a plenty are read.

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decent (adj.)

1530s, "proper to one's station or rank," also "tasteful, proper with regard to modesty or social standards," from French décent, or directly from Latin decentem (nominative decens) "becoming, seemly, fitting, proper," present participle of decere "to be fitting or suitable" (from PIE *deke-, from root *dek- "to take, accept"). Related: Decently.

Meaning "kind, pleasant" is from 1902. Meaning "moderate, respectable, good enough" is by 1711. Are you decent? "are you dressed?" (1949) was originally backstage theater jargon.

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qui vive 

1726, in on the qui vive "on the alert," from French être sur le qui vive "be on the alert," from the phrase qui voulez-vous qui vive? sentinel's challenge, "whom do you wish to live?" In other words "(long) live who?" meaning "whose side are you on?" (The answer might be Vive la France, Vive le roi, etc.). From qui (from Latin qui "who") + vive, third person singular present subjunctive of vivre, from Latin vivere "to live" (see viva).

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morituri te salutant 
Latin, literally "those about to die salute you," words addressed to emperor by gladiators upon entering the arena. Third person singular is moriturus te salutat, first person singular is moriturus te saluto.
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eventful (adj.)
c. 1600, from event + -ful. According to OED, it is in Shakespeare, once ("As You Like It"), and there is no record of it between then and Johnson's "Dictionary." Related: Eventfully; eventfulness. Eventless is attested from 1815.
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Topsy 

slave-girl character in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" (1852), immortal in cliche for her response to a question about her origin put to her by the pious Northern abolitionist Miss Ophelia:

"Have you ever heard anything about God, Topsy?"
The child looked bewildered, but grinned, as usual.
"Do you know who made you?"
"Nobody as I knows on," said the child, with a short laugh.
The idea appeared to amuse her considerably; for her eyes twinkled, and she added--
"I spect I grow'd. Don't think nobody never made me."

In addition to being often misquoted by the addition of a "just" (or "jes'"), the line is sometimes used inappropriately in 20c. writing to indicate something that got large without anyone intending it to.

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ail (v.)

Middle English eilen, ailen, "trouble, afflict, harm," from Old English eglan "to trouble, plague, afflict," from Proto-Germanic *azljaz (source also of Old English egle "hideous, loathsome, troublesome, painful;" Gothic agls "shameful, disgraceful," agliþa "distress, affliction, hardship," us-agljan "to oppress, afflict"), from PIE *agh-lo-, suffixed form of root *agh- (1) "to be depressed, be afraid." Related: Ailed; ailing; ails.

From late Old English also of mental states and moods. Phrase what ails you? "what is wrong with you? why do you behave that way?" is by c. 1300 (what eileth the?)

It is remarkable, that this word is never used but with some indefinite term, or the word no thing; as What ails him? ... Thus we never say, a fever ails him. [Johnson]
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love-bird (n.)

also lovebird, 1590s, small species of West African parrot, noted for the remarkable attention mating pairs pay to one another; figurative sense of "a lover" is attested from 1911.

Hold hands, you lovebirds. [Emil Sitka]
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