Etymology
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anima mundi (n.)
"spiritual essence, distinct from matter and supposed in the philosophy of Pythagoras and Plato to be diffused throughout the universe, organizing and acting through the whole of it," 1670s, Medieval Latin, literally "soul of the world;" used by Abelard to render Greek psyche tou kosmou. From fem. of Latin animus "the rational soul; life; the mental powers, intelligence" (see animus) + genitive of mundus "universe, world" (see mundane).
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Stygian (adj.)
"pertaining to Styx or the nether world," 1560s, from Latin Stygius, from Greek Stygios, from Styx (genitive Stygos); see Styx.
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microcosmic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a little world, of the nature of a microcosm," by 1816, from microcosm + -ic. Related: Microcosmical (1560s); microcosmal (1640s).

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map (n.)

"drawing upon a plane surface representing a part or whole of the earth's surface or the heavens, with the various points drawn in proportion and in corresponding positions," 1520s, a shortening of Middle English mapemounde "map of the world" (late 14c.), and in part from French mappe, shortening of Old French mapemonde. Both the fuller English and French words are from Medieval Latin mappa mundi "map of the world."

The first element is from Latin mappa "napkin, cloth" (on which maps were drawn), "tablecloth, signal-cloth, flag," said by Quintilian to be of Punic (Semitic) origin (compare Talmudic Hebrew mappa, contraction of Mishnaic menaphah "a fluttering banner, streaming cloth"). The second element is Latin mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world" (see mundane).

Commonly used 17c. in a figurative sense of "epitome; detailed representation of anything." To put (something) on the map "bring it to wide attention" is from 1913.

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Serapis 

Roman name of an Egyptian god of the lower world, from Latin, from Greek Serapis, earlier Sarapis, from Egyptian User-hapi, literally "Osiris-Apis." Related: Serapic.

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sexploitation (n.)
1942, from sex (n.) + exploitation. Other similar coinages include sexpert (1924); sexcapade (1953); sexational (1927); and sexophone in "Brave New World."
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caiman (n.)
type of tropical American alligator, also cayman, 1570s, from Portuguese or Spanish caiman, from Carib acayouman "crocodile," or perhaps from a Congo African word applied to the reptiles in the new world by African slaves. "The name appears to be one of those like anaconda and bom, boma, which the Portuguese or Spaniards very early caught up in one part of the world, and naturalized in another." [OED]
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hegemon (n.)

1897, originally with reference to the position of Great Britain in the world, from Greek hēgemon "an authority, leader, sovereign" (see hegemony).

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flatland (n.)
1735, from flat (adj.) + land (n.). Edwin Abbott's popular book about an imaginary two-dimensional world was published in 1884.
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ally (n.)
late 14c., "relative, kinsman" (a sense now obsolete), from ally (v.); mid-15c. in the sense of "one united with another by treaty or league." Allies as the name of the nations aligned against the Central Powers in World War I is from 1914; as the nations aligned against Germany, Italy and Japan in World War II, from 1939.
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