"wild iris," c. 1000, from Latin gladiolus "wild iris, sword-lily," literally "small sword," diminutive of gladius "sword" (see gladiator); the plant so called by Pliny in reference to its sword-shaped leaves. The Old English form of the word was gladdon. Form gladiol is attested from mid-15c.; the modern use perhaps represents a 1560s reborrowing from Latin.
"fruit of the wild apple tree," a small and tart variety of apple, c. 1300 (mid-13c. in place-names), crabbe, perhaps from Scandinavian words (compare Swedish krabbäpple) which are of obscure origin. As "walking stick made of crab wood" by 1740. Crab-tree is from early 15c. Crab-apple for "fruit of the wild apple tree" is by 1712.
1774, "act of becoming domestic; state of being domesticated;" 1778, "act of taming wild animals;" noun of action or state from domesticate (v.).
mid-13c., chace, "a hunt, a pursuit (of a wild animal) for the purpose of capturing and killing," from Old French chace "a hunt, a chase; hunting ground" (12c.), from chacier (see chase (v.)).
The meaning "a pursuit" (of an enemy, etc.) is from early 14c. The sense of "occupation or pastime of hunting wild animals" is from early 14c.; the meaning "group of hunters pursuing game" is from 1811. The sense of "piece of privately owned open ground preserved for animals to be hunted" is from mid-15c.
city in Kansas, U.S.A., from Kansa (Siouan), literally "a good place to dig potatoes;" from /do/ "wild potato" + /ppi/ "good" + /ke/ "to dig."
Old English deor "wild animal, beast, any wild quadruped," in early Middle English also used of ants and fish, from Proto-Germanic *deuzam, the general Germanic word for "animal" (as opposed to man), but often restricted to "wild animal" (source also of Old Frisian diar, Dutch dier, Old Norse dyr, Old High German tior, German Tier "animal," Gothic dius "wild animal," also see reindeer).
This is perhaps from PIE *dheusom "creature that breathes," from root *dheu- (1) "cloud, breath" (source also of Lithuanian dusti "gasp," dvėsti "gasp, perish;" Old Church Slavonic dychati "breathe"). For possible prehistoric sense development, compare Latin animal from anima "breath").
The sense specialization to a specific animal began in Old English (the usual Old English word for what we now call a deer was heorot; see hart), was common by 15c., and is now complete. It happened probably via hunting, deer being the favorite animal of the chase (compare Sanskrit mrga- "wild animal," used especially for "deer").
Deer-lick "salty spot where deer come to lick," is attested by 1778, in an American context. The deer-mouse (1840) is so called for its agility.
also balluster, "support for a railing" (commonly one that swells outward at some point), c. 1600, from French balustre (16c.), from Italian balaustro "small pillar," said to be from balausta "flower of the wild pomegranate," from Greek balaustion (which is perhaps of Semitic origin; compare Aramaic balatz "flower of the wild pomegranate"). The uprights had lyre-like double curves, which resembled the half-opened pomegranate flower.
c. 1600, "European wild ox," from French bison (15c.), from Latin bison "wild ox," borrowed from Proto-Germanic *wisand- "aurochs" (source also of Old Norse visundr, Old High German wisunt "bison," Old English/Middle English wesend, which is not attested after c. 1400). Possibly ultimately of Baltic or Slavic origin, and meaning "the stinking animal," in reference to its scent while rutting (see weasel).
The animal formerly was widespread on the continent, including the British Isles, but in 20c. they survived in the wild only on a forest reserve in Poland. Not to be confused with the aurochs. The name also was applied 1690s to the North American species commonly mis-called a buffalo, which formerly ranged as far as Virginia and Georgia but by 1902 was deemed by Century Dictionary "apparently soon to become extinct as a wild animal." It has since recovered numbers on federal land. Related: Bisontine.