"of or pertaining to the ancient people of southern Italy," 1590s, from Latin Osci, Opsci (plural) "Oscans," literally "worshippers of Ops," a harvest goddess, the name related to Latin ops (genitive opis) "abundance, plenty, wealth, riches," from PIE root *op- "to work, produce in abundance." As a noun, in reference to a member of the people occupying much of southern Italy in ancient times, 1753; in reference to their language, by 1813.
mid-14c., "a plentiful flowing, an abundant supply," from Old French affluence, from Latin affluentia "affluence, abundance," literally "a flowing to," abstract noun from affluentem (nominative affluens) "flowing toward; abounding, rich, copious" (see affluent). The notion in the figurative Latin sense is of "a plentiful flow" of the gifts of fortune, hence "wealth, abundance of earthly goods," a sense attested in English from c. 1600. Latin affluentia is glossed in Ælfric's vocabulary (late Old English) by oferflowendnys.
c. 1200, gein, "advantage, benefit; help," c. 1300, "reward, profit, that which has been acquired" (possessions, resources, wealth), from Old French gain, gaaigne "gain, profit, advantage; work, business; booty; arable land" (12c.), from Germanic, and from Old Norse (see gain (v.)). Meaning "any incremental increase" (in weight, etc.) is by 1851. Related: Gains. The French word enfolded the notions of "profit from agriculture" and "booty, prey."
early 15c., "well-deserved, merited," from Old French condigne "deserved, appropriate, equal in wealth" and directly from Latin condignus "wholly worthy," from assimilated form of com "together, altogether" (see con-) + dignus "worth (n.), worthy, proper, fitting" (from PIE root *dek- "to take, accept").
In Middle English of rewards as well as punishment, censure, etc., but by c. 1700 used exclusively of punishments, "deservedly severe." Related: Condignity; condignly.
1610s, "any means of supplying a want or deficiency," from French resourse "a source, a spring," noun use of fem. past participle of Old French resourdre "to rally, raise again," from Latin resurgere "rise again" (see resurgent).
The meaning "possibility of aid or assistance" (often with a negative) is by 1690s; the meaning "expedient, device, shift" also is from 1690s. Resources as "a country's wealth, means of raising money and supplies" is recorded by 1779. A library resource center was so called by 1968.
1670s, "perplex, throw into doubt," from French embarrasser (16c.), literally "to block," from Italian imbarrazzo, from imbarrare "to bar," from assimilated form of in- "into, upon" (from PIE root *en "in") + Vulgar Latin *barra "bar" (see bar (n.1)).
Meaning "to hamper, hinder" is from 1680s. Meaning "make (someone) feel awkward" is attested by 1809. The original sense is preserved in embarras de richesse "the condition of having more wealth than one knows what to do with" (1751), from French (1726). Related: Embarrassed; embarrassing; embarrassingly.
1670s, "a bottom, the bottom; foundation, groundwork," from French fond "a bottom, floor, ground" (12c.), also "a merchant's basic stock or capital," from Latin fundus "bottom, foundation, piece of land" (from PIE root *bhudh- "bottom, base," source also of Sanskrit budhnah, Greek pythmen "foundation, bottom," Old English botm "lowest part;" see bottom (n.)). Meaning "stock of money or wealth available for some purpose" is from 1690s; sense of "store of anything to be drawn upon" is from 1704. Funds "money at one's disposal" is from 1728.
1610s, "a person's wealth," from Medieval Latin capitale "stock, property," noun use of neuter of Latin capitalis "capital, chief, first" (see capital (adj.)). From 1640s as "the wealth employed in carrying on a particular business," then, in a broader sense in political economy, "that part of the produce of industry which is available for further production" (1793).
[The term capital] made its first appearance in medieval Latin as an adjective capitalis (from caput, head) modifying the word pars, to designate the principal sum of a money loan. The principal part of a loan was contrasted with the "usury"—later called interest—the payment made to the lender in addition to the return of the sum lent. This usage, unknown to classical Latin, had become common by the thirteenth century and possibly had begun as early as 1100 A.D., in the first chartered towns of Europe. [Frank A. Fetter, "Reformulation of the Concepts of Capital and Income in Economics and Accounting," 1937, in "Capital, Interest, & Rent," 1977]
Also see cattle, and compare sense development of fee, and pecuniary. Middle English had chief money "principal fund" (mid-14c.). The noun use of the adjective in classical Latin meant "a capital crime."