Etymology
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extravagant (adj.)

late 14c., in constituciouns extravagaunt, a term in Canon Law for papal decrees not originally included or codified in the Decretals, from Medieval Latin extravagantem (nominative extravagans), present participle of extravagari "wander outside or beyond," from Latin extra "outside of" (see extra-) + vagari "wander, roam" (see vague).

In 15c. it also could mean "rambling, irrelevant; extraordinary, unusual." Extended sense of "excessive, extreme, exceeding reasonable limits" first recorded 1590s, probably via French; that of "wasteful, lavish, exceeding prudence in expenditure" is from 1711. Related: Extravagantly. Wordsworth ("Prelude") used extravagate (v.).

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flock (n.1)
Old English flocc "a group of persons, company, troop," related to Old Norse flokkr "crowd, troop, band," Middle Low German vlocke "crowd, flock (of sheep);" of unknown origin, not found in other Germanic languages; perhaps related to folc "people," but the metathesis would have been unusual for Old English.

In Old English of humans only; extended c. 1200 to "a number of animals of one kind moving or feeding together;" of domestic animals c. 1300. The special reference to birds is recent (19c.). Transferred to bodies of Christians, in relation to Christ or their pastor, from mid-14c.
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diploma (n.)

1640s, "state paper, official document," from Latin diploma (plural diplomata) "a state letter of recommendation," given to persons travelling to the provinces, "a document drawn up by a magistrate," from Greek diploma "licence, chart," originally "paper folded double," from diploun "to double, fold over," from diploos "double" (see diplo-) + -oma, suffix forming neuter nouns and nouns that indicate result of verbal action (see -oma).

The main modern use is a specialized one, "a writing under seal from competent authority conferring some honor or privilege," especially that given by a college conferring a degree or authorizing the practice of a profession (1680s in English).

The plural is always -mas in the ordinary sense (certificate of degree &c.), though -mata lingers in unusual senses (state paper &c.) as an alternative. [Fowler]

Compare diplomacy, diplomatic.

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peeler (n.)

"one who or that which pares off the rind" of fruit, etc., 1590s, agent noun from peel (v.).  In Middle English it meant "robber, thief" (mid-14c.), and in American English it meant "person of exceptional or unusual qualities" (1833). Meaning "strip-tease artist" (1951) is from peel (v.) in the colloquial sense of "strip off clothing" (1785). 

Sense of "policeman," 1817, British colloquial, originally a member of the Irish constabulary, named for Sir (at that time Mr.) Robert Peel (1788-1850) who founded the Irish Constabulary and later improved the police system of London. Compare bobby.

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inner (adj.)

c. 1400, from Old English inra, comparative of inne (adv.) "inside" (see in (adv.)). Similar formation in Old High German innaro, German inner. The original order of comparison was in/inner/inmost; the evolution has been unusual for a comparative, and inner has not been used with than since Middle English.

Inner man "the soul" is from late Old English; as "the spiritual part of man" by late 14c. The Quaker inner light is attested by that name from 1833. Inner tube in the pneumatic tire sense is from 1894. Inner city is attested from 1690s; as a euphemism for "urban poverty and crime," from 1963.

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grateful (adj.)

1550s, "pleasing to the mind," also "full of gratitude, disposed to repay favors bestowed," from obsolete adjective grate "agreeable, pleasant," from Latin gratus "pleasing" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gwere- (2) "to favor"). "A most unusual formation" [Weekley]. A rare, irregular case of English using -ful to make an adjective from an adjective (the only other one I can find is direful "characterized by or fraught with something dreadful," 1580s). Related: Gratefully (1540s); gratefulness.

Grateful often expresses the feeling and the readiness to manifest the feeling by acts, even a long time after the rendering of the favor; thankful refers rather to the immediate acknowledgment of the favor by words. [Century Dictionary]
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exotic (adj.)

1590s, "belonging to another country," from French exotique (16c.) and directly from Latin exoticus, from Greek exotikos "foreign," literally "from the outside," from exo "outside" (see exo-). Sense of "unusual, strange" in English first recorded 1620s, from notion of "alien, outlandish." In reference to strip-teasers and dancing girls, it is attested by 1942, American English.

Exotic dancer in the nightclub trade means a girl who goes through a few motions while wearing as few clothes as the cops will allow in the city where she is working ... [Life magazine, May 5, 1947]

As a noun from 1640s, "anything of foreign origin," originally plants.

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Pittsburgh 

city in Pennsylvania, U.S., founded 1754 by the French and called Fort Duquesne in honor of Michel-Ange Duquesne (1702-1778), governor of New France; captured by the British 1758 and renamed in honor of British statesman William Pitt the Elder (1708-1778). The Scottish -burgh is unusual in the U.S. (compare Edinburgh) and may be from the Scottish officers who led its capture in the Seven Years War. The spelling varied with -burg in 19c., but when the U.S. Board on Geographic Names regularized all -burgh spellings to -burg, the Pittsburghers protested, and the -h officially was restored in 1911

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amend (v.)

early 13c., amenden, "to free from faults, rectify," from Old French amender "correct, set right, make better, improve" (12c.), from Latin emendare "to correct, free from fault," from ex "out" (see ex-) + menda, mendum "fault, physical blemish; error," from PIE *mend- "physical defect, fault" (source also of Sanskrit minda "physical blemish," Old Irish mennar "stain, blemish," Welsh mann "sign, mark;" Hittite mant- "something harming").

The spelling with a- is unusual but early and also is found in Provençal and Italian. In English, the word has been supplanted in senses of "repair; cure" by its shortened offspring mend (v.). The meaning "to add to legislation" (ostensibly to correct or improve it) is recorded from 1777. Related: Amended; amending.

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scare (v.)

1590s, "frighten, terrify suddenly," an unusual alteration of Middle English skerren "to frighten" someone (late 12c.), from Old Norse skirra "to frighten; to shrink from, shun; to prevent, avert," which is related to skjarr "timid, shy, afraid of," but of unknown origin.

In Scottish also skair, skar, which seem to track closer to the word's expected development, and in dialect skeer, skear. Intransitive meaning "become frightened, be scared" is from 14c.; the specific sense of "be alarmed by rumor" is from 1900.

To scare away "drive off by frightening" is from 1650s. To scare up "procure, obtain, find, bring to light" is recorded by 1846, American English, from notion of rousing game from cover. Related: Scared; scaring.

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