Etymology
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retina (n.)

late 14c., "membrane enclosing the eyeball;" c. 1400, "innermost coating of the back of the eyeball;" from Medieval Latin retina "the retina," probably from Vulgar Latin (tunica) *retina, literally "net-like tunic," on resemblance to the network of blood vessels at the back of the eye, and ultimately from Latin rete "net" (see rete).

The Vulgar Latin phrase might be Gerard of Cremona's 12c. translation of Arabic (tabaqa) shabakiyyah "netlike (layer)," itself probably a translation of Greek amphiblēstroeidēs (khiton).

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clavicle (n.)

"collarbone," 1610s, from French clavicule "collarbone" (16c.), also "small key," from Medieval Latin clavicula "collarbone" (used c. 980 in a translation of Avicenna), special use of classical Latin clavicula, literally "small key, bolt," diminutive of clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"); in the anatomical sense a loan-translation of Greek kleis "key, collarbone," which is from the same PIE source. So called supposedly from its function as the "fastener" of the shoulder. Related: Clavicular.

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version (n.)
Origin and meaning of version

1580s, "a translation, that which is rendered from another language," from French version, from Medieval Latin versionem (nominative versio) "a turning, a translation," from past-participle stem of Latin vertere "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed" (from PIE root *wer- (2) "to turn, bend"). Also with a Middle English sense of "destruction." The meaning "particular form of a description; a statement, account, or description of incidents or proceedings from some particular point of view" is attested by 1788.

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aforethought (adj.)
"premeditated," a legal word, 1580s, from afore + past tense of think. Apparently an English loan-translation of the Old French legalese word prepense (see prepense) in the phrase malice prepense "malice aforethought" (Coke).
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hand of glory (n.)
1707, originally a piece of mandrake root, translation of French maindeglorie, from a corruption of Latin mandragora "mandrake" (see mandrake). The dead man's hand charm is described from mid-15c., but not by this name.
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cross-dressing (n.)

also crossdressing, "dressing in clothes of the opposite sex," 1911, from cross- + dressing; a translation of German Transvestismus (see transvestite). As a verb, cross-dress is attested by 1966; the noun cross-dresser is by 1975.

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brainwashing (n.)
"attempt to alter or control the thoughts and beliefs of another person against his will by psychological techniques," 1950, a literal translation of Chinese xi nao. A term from the Korean War.
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indwelling (n.)
"act of residing," late 14c. (Wyclif's translation of Latin inhabitatio), present participle of obsolete indwell, from in (adv.) + dwell (v.). He also used indweller for Latin inhabitans and indwell (v.) for inhabitare.
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rain forest (n.)

"dense forest in an area of high rainfall with little seasonal variation," 1899, apparently a loan-translation of German Regenwald, coined by A.F.W. Schimper for his 1898 work "Pflanzengeographie."

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freehold (n.)
"landed estate in possession of a freeman," late 15c., later generalized to any outright ownership of land, a translation of Anglo-French fraunc tenement; see free (adj.) + hold (n.1).
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