Etymology
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artery (n.)
late 14c., "an arterial blood vessel," from Anglo-French arterie, Old French artaire (13c.; Modern French artère), and directly from Latin arteria, from Greek arteria "windpipe," also "an artery," as distinct from a vein; related to aeirein "to raise" (see aorta).

They were regarded by the ancients as air ducts because the arteries do not contain blood after death, and 14c.-16c. artery in English also could mean "trachea, windpipe." Medieval writers, based on Galen, generally took them as a separate blood system for the "vital spirits." The word is used in reference to artery-like systems of major rivers from 1805; of railways from 1844.
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recognizance (n.)

early 14c., reconisaunce, in law, "a bond acknowledging some obligation binding one over to do some particular act," from Old French reconissance "acknowledgment, recognition" (12c., Modern French reconnaissance), from reconoiss-, present-participle stem of reconoistre (see recognize).

By c. 1400 as "acknowledgment of subjection or allegiance" (to God or a temporal power). The general sense of "act of recognizing, acknowledgement of a person or thing" is from 15c. To be discharged or released (up)on (one's) own recognizance (1851) as a phrase for "be released without bail on condition of good behavior" in the jargon of police blotters and district courts, is based on the written promise that you sign to get it, to appear in court as required. Related: Recognizant.

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temper (v.)
late Old English temprian "to moderate, bring to a proper or suitable state, to modify some excessive quality, to restrain within due limits," from Latin temperare "observe proper measure, be moderate, restrain oneself," also transitive, "mix correctly, mix in due proportion; regulate, rule, govern, manage." This is often described as from Latin tempus "time, season" (see temporal), with a sense of "proper time or season." But as the root sense of tempus seems to be "stretch," the words in the "restrain, modify" sense might be from a semantic shift from "stretching" to "measuring" (compare temple (n.1)). Meaning "to make (steel) hard and elastic" is from late 14c. Sense of "tune the pitch of a musical instrument" is recorded from c. 1300. Related: Tempered; tempering.
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pastime (n.)

"amusement, diversion, that which serves to make the time pass agreeably," late 15c., passe tyme "recreation, diversion, amusement, sport," from pass (v.) + time (n.). Formed on model of French passe-temps (15c.), from passe, imperative of passer "to pass" + temps "time," from Latin tempus (see temporal).

The central idea of a pastime is that it is so positively agreeable that it lets time slip by unnoticed: as, to turn work into pastime. Amusement has the double meaning of being kept from ennui and of finding occasion of mirth .... Recreation is that sort of play or agreeable occupation which refreshes the tired person, making him as good as new. Diversion is a stronger word than recreation, representing that which turns one aside from ordinary serious work or thought, and amuses him greatly. [Century Dictionary, 1895]
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sensible (adj.)

late 14c., "capable of sensation or feeling;" also "capable of being sensed or felt, perceptible to the senses," hence "perceptible to the mind, easily understood; logical, reasonable," from Old French sensible and directly from Late Latin sensibilis "having feeling: perceptible by the senses," from sensus, past participle of sentire "to perceive, feel" (see sense (n.)).

Of persons, from c. 1400 as "capable of mental perception, having good sense, clever, discerning;" by early 15c. as "aware, cognizant (of something)." Of actions, discourse, etc., "marked by or proceeding from (good) sense," 1650s. In reference to clothes, shoes, etc., "practical rather than fashionable," it is attested from 1855.

Other Middle English senses included "susceptible to injury or pain" (early 15c., common through 18c., now gone with sensitive); "worldly, temporal, outward" (c. 1400); "carnal, unspiritual" (early 15c., now gone with sensual). Related: Sensibleness.

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estate (n.)
early 13c., "rank, standing, condition," from Anglo-French astat, Old French estat "state, position, condition, health, status, legal estate" (13c., Modern French état), from Latin status "state or condition, position, place; social position of the aristocracy," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

For the unetymological e-, see e-. Sense of "property" is late 14c., from that of "worldly prosperity;" specific application to "landed property" (usually of large extent) is first recorded in American English 1620s. A native word for this was Middle English ethel (Old English æðel) "ancestral land or estate, patrimony." Meaning "collective assets of a dead person or debtor" is from 1830.

The three estates (in Sweden and Aragon, four) conceived as orders in the body politic date from late 14c. In France, they are the clergy, nobles, and townsmen; in England, originally the clergy, barons, and commons, later Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and commons. For Fourth Estate see four.
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now (adv.)

Middle English nou, from Old English nu "at the present time, at this moment, immediately; now that," also used as an interjection and as an introductory word; from Proto-Germanic *nu (source also of Old Norse nu, Dutch nu, Old Frisian nu, German nun, Gothic nu "now"), from PIE *nu "now" (source also of Sanskrit and Avestan nu, Old Persian nuram, Hittite nuwa, Greek nu, nun, Latin nunc, Old Church Slavonic nyne, Lithuanian , Old Irish nu-). Perhaps originally "newly, recently," and related to the root of new.

Since Old English often merely emphatic, without a temporal sense (as in now then, which is attested from early 13c.). As a noun, "the present time," from late 14c. The adjective meaning "up to date" was revived by 1967, but the word was used also as an adjective with the sense of "current" from late 14c. through 18c. Now and then "occasionally, at one time and another" is from mid-15c.; now or never attested from early 13c. (nu oþer neure).

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purgatory (n.)

c. 1200, purgatorie, "place or condition of temporal punishment for spiritual cleansing after death of souls dying penitent and destined ultimately for Heaven," from Old French purgatore, purgatoire and directly from Medieval Latin purgatorium (St. Bernard, early 12c.), in Latin, "means of cleansing," noun use of neuter of purgatorius (adj.) "purging, cleansing," from purgat-, past-participle stem of Latin purgare "to cleanse, purify" (see purge (v.)).

It is not considered as a place of probation ; for the ultimate salvation of those in purgatory is assured, and the impenitent are not received into purgatory. The souls in purgatory are supposed, however, to receive relief through the prayers of the faithful and through the sacrifice of the mass. The common belief in the Latin Church is that the purgatorial suffering is by fire ; the Greek Church, however, does not determine its nature. [Century Dictionary]

The figurative use for "state of mental or emotional suffering, expiation, etc." is from late 14c., originally especially when due to unrequited love, or, (seemingly paradoxically), marriage (e.g. Lydgate's wyfly purgatorye). In old New England it was used of narrow gorges and steep-sided ravines. Related: Purgatorial; purgatorian

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Caesar 

"an emperor, a ruler, a dictator," late 14c., cesar, from Cæsar, originally a surname of the Julian gens in Rome, elevated to a title after Caius Julius Caesar (100 B.C.E.-44 B.C.E.) became dictator; it was used as a title of emperors down to Hadrian (138 C.E.). The name is of uncertain origin; Pliny derives it from caesaries "head of hair," because the future dictator was born with a full one; Century Dictionary suggests Latin caesius "bluish-gray" (of the eyes), also used as a proper name. Also compare caesarian.

Old English had casere, which would have yielded modern *coser, but it was replaced in Middle English by keiser (c. 1200), from Norse or Low German, and later by the French or Latin form of the name. Cæsar also is the root of German Kaiser and Russian tsar (see czar). He competes as progenitor of words for "king" with Charlemagne (Latin Carolus), as in Lithuanian karalius, Polish krol.

The use in reference to "temporal power as the object of obedience" (contrasted with God) is from Matthew xxii.21. Caesar's wife (1570s) as the figure of a person who should be above suspicion is from Plutarch. In U.S. slang c. 1900, a sheriff was Great Seizer.

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leech (n.2)

"physician" (obsolete, poetical, or archaic), from Old English læce "leech," probably from Old Danish læke, from Proto-Germanic *lekjaz "enchanter, one who speaks magic words; healer, physician" (source also of Old Frisian letza, Old Saxon laki, Old Norse læknir, Old High German lahhi, Gothic lekeis "physician"), literally "one who counsels," perhaps connected with a root found in Celtic (compare Irish liaig "charmer, exorcist, physician") and Slavic (compare Serbo-Croatian lijekar, Polish lekarz), from PIE *lep-agi "conjurer," from root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')."

For sense development, compare Old Church Slavonic baliji "doctor," originally "conjurer," related to Serbo-Croatian bajati "enchant, conjure;" Old Church Slavonic vrači, Russian vrač "doctor," related to Serbo-Croatian vrač "sorcerer, fortune-teller." The form merged with leech (n.1) in Middle English, apparently by folk etymology. In early Middle English the word also was used of God and Christ; but by 17c. the sense had so deteriorated that leech typically was applied only to veterinary practitioners, and soon it was entirely archaic.

The fourth finger of the hand, in Old English, was læcfinger, translating Latin digitus medicus, Greek daktylus iatrikos, supposedly because a vein from that finger stretches straight to the heart.

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