Etymology
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ochre (n.)

common name of a type of clayey soil much used in pigments, late 13c., oker, ocre, from Old French ocre (c. 1300) and directly from Medieval Latin ocra, from Latin ochra, from Greek khra, from khros "pale yellow," a word of unknown origin. It consists hydrated sesquioxids of iron mixed with various earthy materials, principally silica and alumina. As a color name, "brownish-yellow," it is attested from mid-15c. Related: Ochreous.

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*er- (2)
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "earth, ground." It forms all or part of: aardvark; aardwolf; earth; earthen; earthy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Old English eorþe "ground, soil, dirt, dry land," Old Norse jörð, Old High German erda, Gothic airþa; Middle Irish -ert "earth."
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thumb (v.)
"to go through" (especially of printed material), 1930, from thumb (n.), though the related sense of "soil or wear by handling" dates from 1640s. Earlier as a verb it meant "to play (a musical instrument) with the thumb" (1590s). Meaning "to hitchhike" is 1939; originally the thumb pointed in the direction one wished to travel. Related: Thumbed; thumbing. To thumb (one's) nose as an expression of derision is recorded from 1903.
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loess (n.)
1833 (in Lyell), "unstratified deposit of loam," a special use from 1823 by German mineralogist Karl Cäsar von Leonhard (1779-1862) of German Löss "yellowish-gray soil," of a type found in the Rhine valley, from Swiss German lösch (adj.) "loose" (compare German los, from Proto-Germanic *lausaz, from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart." Related: Loessial.
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pedo- 

before vowels ped-, word-forming element meaning "boy, child," from Greek pedo-, combining form of pais "boy, child," especially a son, from PIE root *pau- (1) "few, little." The British form paed- is better because it avoids confusion with the ped- that means "foot" (from PIE root *ped-) and the ped-that means "soil, ground, earth." Compare, from the same root, Sanskrit putrah "son;" Avestan puthra- "son, child;" Latin puer "child, boy," Oscan puklu "child."

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mole (n.1)

spot on skin, Old English mal "spot, mark, blemish," especially on cloth or linen, from Proto-Germanic *mailan "spot, mark" (source also of Old High German meil, German Mal, Gothic mail "wrinkle"), from PIE root *mai- (2) "to stain, soil, defile" (source also of Greek miainein "to stain, defile," see miasma). Specifically of small, permanent dark marks on human skin from late 14c.

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geode (n.)

rounded stone with a hollow center lined with crystals, 1670s (in Greek form from 1610s), from French géode, from Latin geodes, name of a certain precious stone, from Greek geodes "earthy, earth-like, with deep soil," from "earth" (Homeric gaia; see Gaia) + -oides, adjective suffix, "characterized by" (see -oid). Perhaps so called in reference to the rough crust in which the crystals are hidden. Related: Geodic.

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moldwarp (n.)

also mouldwarp, early 14c., moldewarp, "the mole," from Proto-Germanic *moldo-worpo(n)-, literally "earth-thrower," from to Old English molde "earth, soil" (see mold (n.3)) + weorpan "to throw" (see warp (v.)). Common Germanic, compare Old Saxon moldwerp, Dutch mulworp, Norwegian moldvarp, Danish muldvarp, Old High German multwurf, German Maulwurf (which has been influenced by Maul "mouth"). For many years it has been only a provincial word.

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Rubicon (n.)

in the figurative phrase cross (or pass) the Rubicon "take a decisive step," 1620s, a reference to a small stream to the Adriatic on the coast of northern Italy which in ancient times formed part of the southern boundary of Cisalpine Gaul. It was crossed by Caesar, Jan. 10, 49 B.C.E., when he left his province to attack Pompey. The name is from Latin rubicundus "ruddy," in reference to the color of the soil on its banks.

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spider-plant (n.)
1823, said to have been discovered on the coast of the Pacific northwest of North America during Cook's third expedition and so-named by the sailors, "from its striking resemblance to a large spider when it first appears above the surface, before the stem begins to rise from the spherical arrangement of the leaves, or the flagellae begin to creep to any distance from among them to the soil around" [Peter Sutherland, "Journal of a Voyage in Baffin's Bay," 1852]; from spider + plant (n.).
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