Etymology
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monotheism (n.)

"doctrine or belief that there is but one god," 1650s, from mono- "single, alone" + -theism "belief (of a specified kind) in God, a god, or gods."

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monogram (n.)

"two or more letters intertwined," 1690s, from French monogramme or directly from Late Latin monogramma (5c.), from Late Greek monogrammon "a character formed of several letters in one design," especially in reference to the signature of the Byzantine emperors, noun use of neuter of monogrammos (adj.) "consisting of a single letter," literally "drawn with single lines," from Greek monos "single, alone" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + gramma "letter, line, that which is drawn or written" (see -gram). Earlier it meant "sketch or picture drawn in lines only, without shading or color," a sense also found in Latin and probably in Greek but now obsolete in English. Related: Monogrammatic.

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unisexual (adj.)

1802, "of one sex, having only one sex," from uni- + sexual. Meaning "of or for a single sex" (of schools, etc.) is from 1885. Meaning "unisex" is from 1970. Related: Unisexual.

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haplo- 

before vowels hapl-, word-forming element meaning "simple, single; simply, once," from Greek haploos, haplous "single, simple" (as opposed to "compound"); "natural, plain," from PIE compound *sm-plo-, from root *sem- (1) "one; as one, together with" + *-plo- "-fold" (from PIE root *pel- (2) "to fold"). Compare simple, which represents the same compound in Latin.

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one-shot (adj.)

1907, "achieved in a single attempt" (original reference is to golf), from one + shot (n.). Meaning "happening or of use only once" is from 1937.

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monopolylogue (n.)

"entertainment in which one actor performs as many characters," by 1824; see mono- "one, single" + poly- "many" + -logue.

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Maxim 

single-barreled water-cooled machine gun, 1885 (Maxim gun), named for inventor, U.S.-born British engineer Sir Hiram S. Maxim (1840-1916).

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pasteboard (n.)

kind of thick paper, 1540s, from paste (n.) + board (n.1). So called because it originally was made of several single sheets of paper pasted together.

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monist (n.)

"adherent of the metaphysical doctrine of monism" in any sense, 1836, from Greek monos "single" (from PIE root *men- (4) "small, isolated") + -ist. Also see monism. Related: Monistic.

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pixelation (n.)

also pixellation, graphics display effect in which individual pixels (small, square single-colored display elements that comprise the image) are visible, 1991, from pixel + -ation.

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