Etymology
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rat-a-tat (n.)

"a rattling sound or effect," 1680s, echoic, originally of a cooper hammering tubs.

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by-road (n.)
"side road," 1670s, from by + road.
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thorough (adj.)
c. 1300, adjectival use of Old English þuruh (adv.) "from end to end, from side to side," stressed variant of þurh (adv., prep.); see through. Related: thoroughly; thoroughness.
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sway (v.)
early 14c., "move, go, go quickly; move (something) along, carry," probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse sveigja "to bend, swing, give way," Old Danish svegja, perhaps merged with an unrecorded Old English cognate. The whole group might be related to swag (v.) and swing (v.).

The sense of "swing, waver, move in a swaying or sweeping motion" is from late 14c. Meaning "move from side to side" is from c. 1500; transitive sense "cause to move from side to side" is from 1550s (according to OED, not common before 19c.). Figurative sense "cause to be directed toward one side, prejudice" is from 1590s. Related: Swayed; swaying.
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paraplegia (n.)

"paralysis of the lower half of the body," 1650s, Latinized form of (Ionic) Greek paraplēgia "paralysis of one side of the body," from paraplēssein "strike at the side," paraplēssesthai "be stricken on one side," from para- "beside" (see para- (1)) + plēssein "to strike" (from PIE root *plak- (2) "to strike").

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ept (adj.)
1938, back-formation from inept, usually with an attempt at comical effect. Related: Eptitude; eptly.
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causality (n.)

c. 1600, "that which constitutes a cause," from causal + -ity. From 1640s as "the relation of cause to effect."

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waddle (v.)
"to walk with short steps, swaying from side to side; to walk as a duck does," 1590s, frequentative of wade. Related: Waddled; waddling. The noun is recorded from 1690s.
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upside (n.)
1610s, "upper side or surface," from up (adj.) + side (n.). Adverbial phrase upside (someone's) head in reference to a blow to the head is recorded from 1970, African-American vernacular.
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juxtapose (v.)
"to place (two or more objects) side by side or close together," 1826, a back-formation from juxtaposition or else from French juxtaposer (18c.). Related: Juxtaposed; juxtaposing.
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