fem. proper name, 13c., from earlier Aldreda (11c.), contracted from Etheldreda, a Latinized form of Old English Æðelðryð, literally "noble might," from æðele "noble" (see atheling) + ðryð "strength, might," from Proto-Germanic *thruthitho- "strength" (source also of Old Norse Þruðr, name of the daughter of Thor). Popularized by the reputation of Saint Etheldreda, queen of Northumbria and foundress of the convent at Ely.
"act or fact of being made holy; state of being made holy," c. 1400, sanctificacioun, from Old French sanctificacion and directly from Church Latin sanctificationem, noun of action from past-participle stem of Late Latin sanctificare "to make holy," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)). Old French also had it in the semi-popularized saintificacion, thus the occasional Middle English form seintificacionne.
fem. proper name, from Greek sophia "skill, knowledge of, acquaintance with; sound judgment, practical wisdom; cunning, shrewdness; philosophy," also "wisdom personified," abstract noun from sophos "wise" (see sophist). Saint Sophia in ancient church names and place names in the East is not necessarily a reference to a person; the phrase also is the English translation of the Greek for "divine wisdom, holy wisdom," to which churches were dedicated.
also antiamerican, "opposed to the United States of America or its people or interests," 1773, in reference to British parliamentary policies, from anti- + American. As a noun by 1788. Related: Anti-Americanism "opposition to what is distinctly American" (1844).
The term "anti-American" is a loose one, and loosely employed. My own working definition of it, admittedly a slack one also, is that a person is anti-American if he or she is consistently contemptuous of American culture and furthermore supports any opponent of U.S. policy, whoever this may be. [Christopher Hitchens, review of "The Life of Graham Greene, Vol. II," The Atlantic, March 2005]
Middle English blessinge, from Old English bletsunga, bledsunge, "divine grace; protecting influence (of a deity, saint); state of spiritual well-being or joy;" also of a sanction or benediction of the Pope, a priest, etc.; verbal noun from bless. The meaning "a gift from God, that which gives temporal or spiritual benefit" is from mid-14c. In the sense of "religious invocation before a meal" it is recorded from 1738. Phrase blessing in disguise is recorded from 1746.
fem. proper name, from Latin, fem. of barbarus "strange, foreign, barbarous," from Greek barbaros (see barbarian (n.)). For women, unlike men, the concept of "alien" presumably could be felt as "exotic" and thus make an appealing name. Popularized as a Christian name by the legend of Saint Barbara, early 4c. martyr, whose cult flourished from 7c. The common Middle English form was Barbary. A top 10 name in popularity for girls born in the U.S. between 1927 and 1958.
masc. proper name, from German Bernhard, literally "bold as a bear," from Old High German bero "bear" (see bear (n.)) + harti "hard, bold, strong" (from PIE root *kar- "hard"). Saint Bernard (1091-1153) was the famous Cistercian monk; the breed of Alpine mastiff dogs is said to have been so called from early 18c. (in English by 1839), because the monks of the hospice named for him in the pass of St. Bernard (between Italy and Switzerland) sent them to rescue snowbound travelers.
"the science of formal intercourse between nations through authorized agents; the art of negotiating and drafting treaties;" more loosely, "transactions and management of international business in general," 1793, from French diplomatie, formed from diplomate "diplomat" (on model of aristocratie from aristocrate), from Modern Latin diplomaticus (1680s), from Latin diploma (genitive diplomatis) "official document conferring a privilege" (see diploma; for sense evolution, see diplomatic).
It is obvious to any one who has been in charge of the interests of his country abroad that the day secrecy is abolished negotiations of any kind will become impossible. [Jules Cambon, "The Diplomatist" (transl. Christopher Rede Turner), 1931]
Meaning "dexterity or skill in managing negotiations of any kind" is by 1848.
c. 1200, trone, "the seat of God or a saint in heaven;" c. 1300 as "seat occupied by a sovereign," from Old French trone (12c., Modern French trône), from Latin thronus, from Greek thronos "elevated seat, chair, throne," from suffixed form of PIE root *dher- "to hold firmly, support" (source also of Latin firmus "firm, steadfast, strong, stable," Sanskrit dharma "statute, law"). From late 14c. as a symbol of royal power. Colloquial meaning "toilet" is recorded from 1922. The classical -h- begins to appear in English from late 14c.
late 14c., seintefien "to consecrate, set apart for sacred use;" c. 1400, "to render holy or legitimate by religious sanction;" from Old French saintefier "sanctify" (12c., Modern French sanctifier), from Late Latin sanctificare "to make holy," from sanctus "holy" (see saint (n.)) + combining form of facere "to make, to do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put").
The form was altered in English c. 1400 to conform to Latin. From 1520s (Tyndale) as "to free from sin." The transferred sense of "to render worthy of respect" is from c. 1600. Related: Sanctified; sanctifying.