Etymology
Advertisement
Islam (n.)

"religious system revealed by Muhammad," 1816, from Arabic islam, literally "submission" (to the will of God), from root of aslama "he resigned, he surrendered, he submitted," causative conjunction of salima "he was safe," and related to salam "peace."

... Islam is the only major religion, along with Buddhism (if we consider the name of the religion to come from Budd, the Divine Intellect, and not the Buddha), whose name is not related to a person or ethnic group, but to the central idea of the religion. ["The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity," Seyyed Hossein Nasr, 2002]

Earlier English names for the faith include Mahometry (late 15c.), Muhammadism (1610s), Islamism (1747), and Ismaelism (c. 1600; see Ismailite). The Ismailites were not numerous in Islam, but among them were the powerful Fatimid dynasty in Egypt and the Assassins, both of which loomed large in European imagination. This use also is in part from Ishmaelite, a name formerly given (especially by Jews) to Arabs, as descendants of Ishmael (q.v.).

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
Averroes 
Latinization of name of Ibn Rushd (1126-1198) Arab philosopher and physician of Spain and Morocco. He reintroduced, before the Renaissance, something of Aristotle's doctrines and his followers were particularly noted for their separation of philosophy from religion. Related: Averroist; Averoistic.
Related entries & more 
Mozarab (n.)

"assimilated Christian in Moorish Spain," one who was allowed to continue practicing his religion in exchange for political allegiance, from Spanish Mozarabe "would-be Arab," from Arabic mostarib, from a desiderative verbal form of Arab. Related: Mozarabian (1706); Mozarabic.

Related entries & more 
siddha (n.)
in Indian religion, "one who has attained perfection and bliss," 1846, from Sanskrit siddhah "accomplished, achieved, successful, possessing supernatural power, sorcerer, saint," related to sidhyati "reaches his goal, succeeds," sadhuh "right, skilled, excellent, a holy man."
Related entries & more 
godless (adj.)
1520s, from God + -less. Similar formation in Dutch goddeloos, German gottlos, Swedish gudlös, Gothic gudalaus. Related: Godlessness. Phrase godless communism attested by 1851; The Godless (Russian bezbozhnik) was the name of an organization for the suppression of religion in the Soviet Union.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
Asgard (n.)

in Norse religion, the home of the gods and goddesses and of heroes slain in battle, from Old Norse āss "god," which is related to Old English os, Gothic ans "god" (see Aesir) + Old Norse garðr "enclosure, yard, garden" (from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose").

Related entries & more 
unbias (v.)

"to free from bias," 1708, from un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + bias (v.).

The truest service a private man may hope to do his country is, by unbiassing his mind as much as possible. [Swift, "The Sentiments of a Church of England Man with respect to Religion and Government," 1708]
Related entries & more 
nefandous (adj.)

"not to be spoken of, abominable, very shocking to the general sense of justice or religion," 1630s, from Latin nefandus "unmentionable, impious, heinous," from ne-, negative particle (see un- (1)), + fandus "to be spoken," gerundive of fari "to speak," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say."

Related entries & more 
apostatize (v.)
"abandon one.s faith, principles, or church," 1610s, from Late Latin apostatizare, earlier apostatare, from apostata "one who forsakes his religion or faith" (see apostate (n.)). Related: Apostatized; apostatizing. The past participle form apostazied is attested from late 14c.
Related entries & more 
convert (n.)

1560s, "person whose faith has been changed from one religion to another," from convert (v.). Earlier was convers (early 14c.), from Old French converse (n.). General (non-religious) sense of "person converted from one opinion or practice to another" is from 1640s.

Related entries & more 

Page 6